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Benstonea affinis


Benstonea affinis (Kurz) Callm. & Buerki

Family Name: Pandanaceae
Synonyms: Pandanus aurantiacus Ridl., Pandanus affinis Kurz
Common Name: Mengkuang Bunga, Mengkuang Perah, Pandan Ikan


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Monocotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Shrubby (1m-5m)), Shrub
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Maximum Height 5 m


Native Distribution Vietnam, Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, and Indonesia
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Freshwater Swamp Forest, Riverine), Shoreline (Mangrove Forest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is an erect, branching shrub or small tree up to 5 m tall, with slender stems and prop roots.
Foliage Its spirally arranged leaves have leaf blades that are elongated-lance-shaped, 1 m long, 3–4 cm wide, and with spines along the edges and the upper surface.
Flowers The species is dioecious, producing either male or female flowers on different individuals. Its flowers are small, have no petals, and are found in numerous-flowered clusters. The female flowers are bright orange-red and found in clusters that are 6.4 by 2.5 cm.
Fruit The fruit is fleshy with a stony core, orange-red, oblong-pyramidal, 2–2.3 cm long, and can be found in numerous-fruited heads. The fruit-heads are oblong-round and are in turn found in 3–9 fruited clusters.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are insect-pollinated.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed or by division of young plants from the parent plant.
Etymology The genus Benstonea is named in honour of Benjamin Clemens Stone (1933 - 1994) who was the leading authority on Pandanaceae family for several decades. 
Ethnobotanical Uses Others: It has medicinal properties, and is used by locals as fish bait.

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It is suitable for parks, especially in waterlogged soils or at the edges of ponds or waterbodies.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers, Ornamental Foliage, Ornamental Fruits, Ornamental Form
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens, Riverine, Pond / Lake / River, Marsh / Bog
Usage Hazard - Cons Spines/Thorns - Stem/Branch, Spines/Thorns - Leaf

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna), Abiotic

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, Semi-Shade
Water Preference Lots of Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Rootzone Tolerance Waterlogged Soils (Drains Site, Does not Drain Site)
Propagation Method Seed, Division


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Rosulate / Rosette
Foliar Attachment to Stem Sessile
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Lanceolate, Linear)
Foliar Venation Parallel
Foliar Margin Serrate / Toothed

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Unisexual Flowers , Dioecious
Flower Colour(s) Orange, Red
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Orange, Red
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type Fleshy Fruit , Non-Accessory Fruit

Image Repository



Master ID 32046
Species ID 6451
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 18 July 2023.