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Euphorbia antiquorum

Family Name: Euphorbiaceae
Synonyms: Euphorbia cactus, Euphorbia cervicornis, Euphorbia nuvulia
Common Name: Sesudu, Malayan Tree Spurge, Sudu, Sudu Sudu, Ancient Euphorbia, Fleshy Spurge
Full Sun Little Water Drought Tolerant Herbaceous Plant


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Herbaceous Plant
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular
Maximum Height 5 m to 7 m


Native Distribution Origin is uncertain.
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Desert / Arid
Local Conservation Status Exotic (Horticultural / Cultivated Only)

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Highly branched succulent with a cactus-like growth form, growing up to 5-7 m tall. In the wild, it can grow up to 20 m tall.
Foliage Smooth, glossy leaves are borne along the stem ridges. Leaves are obovate with entire leaf margin.
Stems The fleshy, 3-winged stem (but sometimes 4- or 5- winged) is armed with paired spines that line the edge of the wings. The spines are 2-5 mm long and extend past the tiny, prickly stipules.
Flowers The inflorescence (called a cyathia) looks like a single yellowish-green to pinkish, cup-shaped flower. The cup if formed by bracts (modified leaves) which are fused together. The actual flowers are tiny and unisexual, located in the middle of the cup-like bracts. It is pollinated by bees, attracting them with abundant nectar.
Fruits Smooth, lobed capsule (8-10 mm wide) turns deep red at maturity. It carries smooth, round seeds which are brown-yellow and 2 mm wide.

Landscaping Features

Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Dry Soils / Drought

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Little Water
Plant Growth Rate Fast
Propagation Method Seed, Stem Cutting
Plant Growth Rate Remarks It can become large in 3-5 years.


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Yellow / Golden, Green - Light Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth, Glossy / Shiny
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Sessile
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Oblong)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Rounded
Foliar Base Cuneate
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 4.5 (Shrub & Groundcover - Dicot)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower Colour(s) Pink
Flower Texture(s) Thick / Fleshy
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Symmetry Radial
Individual Flower Shape Bowl-shaped
Flower Colour(s) Remarks Yellowish Green

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Red
Mature Fruit Texture(s) Smooth
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Dehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Capsule
Mature Seed Texture(s) Smooth

Image Repository



Master ID 705
Species ID 2000
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 23 February 2022.