Singapore Government Logo

A Singapore Government Agency Website

Xanthostemon verdugonianus


Xanthostemon verdugonianus Naves

Family Name: Myrtaceae
Common Name: Red Penda, Crimson Penda, 年青蒲桃


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Shrub, Tree (Shrubby (1m-5m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Shrubby, Open
Maximum Height 2 m to 5 m


Native Distribution the Philippines
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Coastal Forest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical

Description and Ethnobotany

Others - Plant Morphology Large shrub, usually about 1.0 m to 2.0 m tall, may grow into a small tree of up to 5 m in height. Leaves 5 - 8 cm long, obovate in shape, veins arranged in a pinnate fashion with a prominent mid rib. Flowers bisexual, 5 - petaled, triangular and red, 0.7 - 1 cm across with numerous long stamens surrounding a single style in the center. Stamens 1.6 - 2 cm in length while styles range from 2.6 - 3.0 cm. During fruit formation, style remains attached to fruit while stamens drop gradually. As fruit increases in size, style dries up together with the sepals and falls off to expose immature fruit. Upon maturation, fruit turns brown and dry out. Seeds are dispersed via explosive action.Increased popularity among landscape designers but not easy to grow in cultivation. Rarely grows in the wild. Planted along roadsides or parks in Singapore but usually found near coastal areas in its native habitat of Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, Australia.

Landscaping Features

Landscape Uses General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Coastal
SGMP Treatment

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Butterfly Food Plant
Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna) (Insects (Bee))
Seed or Spore Dispersal Abiotic (Explosive Dehiscence)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Rootzone Tolerance Saline Soils / Salt Spray
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Glossy / Shiny, Leathery
Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) Red
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Obovate)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Rounded
Foliar Base Acute
Typical Foliar Area Notophyll ( 20.25cm2 - 45 cm2 )
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.5 (Shrub & Groundcover - Monocot)

Non - Foliar and Storage

Bark Colour(s) Reddish Brown
Stem Type & Modification Woody
Mature Bark Texture Remarks Rough

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Red
Flowering Period Free-Flowering
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Brown
Fruit Type Dehiscent Dry Fruit , Capsule

Image Repository



Master ID 1268
Species ID 2561
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 15 February 2022.