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Xanthostemon chrysanthus


Xanthostemon chrysanthus (F.Muell.) Benth.

Family Name: Myrtaceae
Common Name: Golden Penda, Golden Myrtle, Black Penda, 金蒲桃, 黄花树


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m), Small (6m-15m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Oval
Maximum Height 8 m to 40 m


Native Distribution Australia
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Non-native

Description and Ethnobotany

Others - Plant Morphology Tropical tree, 8 - 12 m in height under cultivation, but up to 40 m in its native environment. Lance-shaped leaves, 8 - 20 cm x 1.5 - 5 cm, arranged spirally, dark green and leathery. Young flushes appear bronze-red. Flowers bright yellow and bisexual with 5 petals attached to rim of calyx. Yellow stamens about 3 cm, surround centrally located style that is 3 - 4 cm long. Fruits are capsules, turn from green to brown upon maturation. Seeds are dispersed by explosive action. Propagated via seeds or stem cuttings, relatively easy to grow, fast growing and low maintenance. Flowering believed to be induced by sudden drop in temperature and can begin 2 - 3 years after been grown from seeds.Genus name derived from Greek ‘xantho’ and Latin ‘stamen’, meaning yellow thread. Species epithet refers to gold and flower, derived from Greek words ‘khrusos’ and ‘anthos’.Introduced to Singapore in 1982 from Cairns, Australia, where it is the flora emblem.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers
Landscape Uses General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Hedge / Screening
Thematic Landscaping Golden Garden
SGMP Treatment

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Bird Attracting, Butterfly Food Plant, Bee-Attracting
Seed or Spore Dispersal Abiotic (Explosive Dehiscence)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Lots of Water, Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Rootzone Tolerance Well-Drained Soils
Maintenance Requirements Low
Propagation Method Seed, Stem Cutting


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) Red
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Spiral
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Oval)
Typical Foliar Area Microphyll ( 2.25cm2 - 20.25 cm2 ), Notophyll ( 20.25cm2 - 45 cm2 )
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Non - Foliar and Storage

Trunk Type (Non Palm) Woody
Bark Colour(s) Brown
Mature Bark Texture Scaly, Smooth

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Yellow / Golden
Ovary Position Inferior / Epipgynous
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Brown
Fruit Type Dehiscent Dry Fruit , Capsule

Image Repository



Master ID 1907
Species ID 3200
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 06 April 2023.