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Antidesma cuspidatum Müll. Arg. var. cuspidatum

Family Name: Phyllanthaceae
Common Name: Buni, Kayu Buloh
Full Sun: 6-8h Semi-Shade Lots of Water Moderate Water Bird-Attracting Native to Singapore Roadside Tree / Palm Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Infraspecific Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular
Maximum Height 17 m


Native Distribution Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra,and Borneo
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Freshwater Swamp Forest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Common)

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree, up to 17 m tall.
Foliage Its alternate, stalked leaves have leathery leaf blades that are oblong to egg-shaped, and 7-23 by 2.5-9 cm.
Flowers Its tiny flowers are arranged on a branched flowering shoot that is 5-18 cm long.
Fruits Its lens-shaped fruits are usually shiny black when dry, and 5-7 mm long.
Habitat It grows in lowland forests, sometimes on swampy grounds from the lowlands up to 1,600 m altitude.
Associated Fauna It is the food plant for caterpillars of the moth, Phycidopsis albovittata. Its fruits are eaten by birds.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Ethnobotanical Uses Timber & Products ( The hard, fine-grained timber is used for small pieces of work because it is not available in large quantities. The wood is also used for burning.)

Landscaping Features

Landscaping Its attractive fruits are produced along branches. It is a tree suitable for gardens, parks or roadsides.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Fruits
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Landscape Uses General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Bird Attracting, Caterpillar Moth Food Plant
Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, Semi-Shade
Water Preference Moderate Water, Lots of Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical, Oblong)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Unisexual Flowers
Flower & Plant Sexuality 2 Dioecious
Flower Colour(s) Green
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Inflorescence Type Raceme

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Fleshy Fruit


References Tan, P.Y., R.T. Corlett and H.T.W. Tan (Editors). 2010. A Field Guide to the Native Garden @ HortPark: an Urban Oasis of the Native Flora and Fauna of Singapore. Singapore: Centre for Urban Greenery and Ecology (National Parks Board) and National University of Singapore. 124pp

Image Repository



Master ID 1422
Species ID 2715
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 20 April 2020.