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Antidesma ghaesembilla Gaertn.

Family Name: Phyllanthaceae
Synonyms: Antidesma ghaesembilla Mull.Arg. var. genuinum, Antidesma ghaesembilla (Willd.) Mull.Arg. var. paniculatum, Antidesma ghaesembilla (C.Presl.) Mull.Arg. var. vestitum, Antidesma paniculatum Willd., Antidesma pubescens Roxb., Antidesma vestitum C.Presl.
Common Name: Andarupis, Anjarubi, Anjuripes, Borotindik, Dempul, Guchek, Gunchin, Gunipot, Indarupis, Jantik-jantik, Kakapal, Lonang, Ondurupis, Sunsuron, Tandurupis, Tarat, Tendrupis, 方叶五月茶
Full Sun: 6-8h Moderate Water Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular
Maximum Height 20 m
Tree or Palm – Trunk Diameter 22 cm


Native Distribution From India, Nicobar Islands, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, to China and Nepal, south throughout Southeast Asia (Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam) and east to Papua New Guinea and northern Australia.
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Secondary Rainforest, Monsoon Forest, Grassland / Savannah/ Scrubland, Disturbed Area / Open Ground)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
Local Conservation Status Exotic (Horticultural / Cultivated Only)

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree, up to 20 m tall, with pubescent young twigs.
Foliage Its stalked, alternately arranged leaves are papery to thinly leathery, covered with fine hairs, oblong in shape (sometimes ovate or drop shaped), 3-7 cm long by 3-5 cm wide. The leaf base is rounded to heart-shaped while the leaf tip is usually rounded.
Flowers Its tiny yellow-green to yellow-red flowers are borne on branched axillary or terminal inflorescences axillary and terminal. The plant is dioecious, bearing female and male flowers on different trees. The male inflorescenes are longer, about 4-8 cm long, while the female inflorescenes are shorter, about 2-3 cm long but become longer when developing fruits. The male flowers are stalkless while the female flowers are stalked.
Fruits Its small fruits are fleshy ellipsoid drupes that are somewhat flattened, 3-4 mm long by 2.5-3 mm wide, ripening red.
Habitat It grows in lowland deciduous or evergreen forests, often also in open, disturbed areas and grassland.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are insected pollinated. The fruits are eaten by birds.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Greek anti, against; Greek desmos, band; Latin ghaesembilla, after the local name of the plant species in Sri Lanka.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits)
Medicinal ( The leaves are eaten to treat headaches, while the stems are used to facilitate menstrual flow. The fruits are used as laxatives.)

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It is suitable for planting in parks and gardens for its attractive fruits and medicinal value.
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Papery, Leathery
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Ovate, Obovate, Oblong)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Rounded
Foliar Base Cordate

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Unisexual Flowers
Flower & Plant Sexuality 2 Dioecious

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Red
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Fleshy Fruit

Image Repository



Master ID 29236
Species ID 3545
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 09 April 2021.