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Araucaria heterophylla

Family Name: Araucariaceae

Araucaria excelsa var. glauca Carrière, Araucaria excelsa var. speciosissima Carrière, Abies columbaria (Dum.Cours.) Dum.Cours., Eutacta excelsa var. aurea-variegata Carrière, Eutacta excelsa var. glauca (Carrière) Carrière, Eutacta excelsa var. monstrosa Carrière, Eutacta excelsa var. variegata-alba CarrièreEutassa heterophylla SalisbPinus columbaria Dum.Cours. 

Common Name: Norfolk Island Pine, House Pine, Australian Pine, Arukaria, Star Pine
Full Sun: 6-8h Little Water Moderate Water Coastal Interiorscape / Indoor Plant Ornamental Foliage Dry Soils / Drought Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Gymnosperms (Non-Flowering Seed Plants)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Conical
Maximum Height 50 m to 70 m
Maximum Plant Spread / Crown Width 20 m


Native Distribution Norfolk Island (east of Australia)
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Coastal Forest)
Preferred Climate Zone Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal

Description and Ethnobotany

Others - Plant Morphology Coniferous tree (not true pine despite common name), 50-70m in height. Crown narrowly conical, branchlets in symmetrical whorls of 4-7. Form relatively upright, sometimes with slight lean. Leaves bright green; Young leaves smaller, wedge-shaped; Mature leaves larger, incurved, scale-like, spiral densely around twigs; hence species epithet 'heterophylla' (different leaves). Whole twigs (rather than individual leaves) dropped during foliage shed. Non-flowering plant - tree produces cones instead, male and female cones on separate trees. Male cones cylindrical, yellow-brown or reddish, pollen-producing; Female cones broad, with triangular scales and bract. Fruits are dehiscent woody cones, seldom produced in cultivation, contain winged, nut-like edible seeds. Distinctive architectural crown makes plant suitable for specimen or mass planting in groves. Striking when located beside tall buildings. If grown in lawns, surface roots may make mowing difficult. Younger plants can be grown in containers and used as Christmas tree substitute in tropics. Mature trees are drought-tolerant. Branches droop if tree is grown in shade. Propagate by cuttings of erect, terminal shoot tips, or seeds (if commercially available).
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Seeds)
[Others]: Timber used for wood-turning and crafts-making in Hawaii.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Foliage
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Well-Drained Soils, Saline Soils / Salt Spray, Acidic (low pH) Soils, Easy to Grow, Dry Soils / Drought
Landscape Uses General, Coastal, Focal Plant, Interiorscape/ Indoor Plant, Container Planting
Thematic Landscaping Formal Garden
SGMP Treatment
Species record last updated on: 01 March 2021.