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Dillenia reticulata


Dillenia reticulata King

Family Name: Dilleniaceae
Common Name: Stilted Simpoh, Simpoh Jangkang, Simpoh Gajah


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular
Maximum Height 30 m to 40 m


Native Distribution Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and Borneo
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Freshwater Swamp Forest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form This is a lofty tree up to 40m tall, with conspicuous prop roots at the base of the trunk.
Foliage Alternate, stalked leaves possess finely toothed leaf blades that are oval or oval-oblong to drop-shaped, and 10-46 by 6-28cm, with venation that resembles a close network. Leaf blades also have heart-shaped or narrowed or rounded bases. The undersides are velvety and golden brown when they wither.
Flowers Stalked flowers are up to 8.1cm wide, with large, yellow petals. They develop in a loose, 3 to 15-flowered cluster that is up to 13 by 13cm, at the ends of leafless twigs or twigs with new leaves.
Fruits The greenish-yellow fruits are slightly flattened and roundish, and up to 3.8cm wide. Its seeds are glossy black, and 3.5 by 2.5mm, with a reduced, fleshy covering.
Habitat It grows in lowland primary forests, on swampy ground on wet to rather dry soil.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are insect-pollinated. The flowers and possibly the fruits, are also eaten by gibbons and monkeys.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Latin Dillenia, commemorating Johann Jacob Dillenius (1687–1747), Professor of Botany at Oxford, author of Historia Muscorum and Hortus Elthamensis; Latin reticulata, conspicuously net-veined, probably referring to the venation of the leaf blades

Landscaping Features

Landscaping This tree has attractive, large, yellow-petalled flowers. The prop roots at the base of the trunk make this an interesting addition to landscape design. Its tolerance for damp soil makes it suitable for waterlogged sites that most plants do not favour.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers, Ornamental Foliage, Ornamental Form
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Waterlogged Soils (Drains Site, Does not Drain Site), Fertile Loamy Soils
Landscape Uses General, Parks & Gardens, Riverine, Pond / Lake / River, Marsh / Bog

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna) (Vertebrates (Other Mammal))
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water, Lots of Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Maintenance Requirements Moderate
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Hairy / Hirsute
Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) Orange, Red
Young Flush Texture(s) Hairy / Hirsute
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Spiral
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Obovate, Elliptical, Oblong)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Serrate / Toothed
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Yellow / Golden
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Green, Yellow / Golden
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Fleshy Fruit

Image Repository



Master ID 1553
Species ID 2846
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 14 October 2021.