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Ficus auriculata Lour.

Family Name: Moraceae
Synonyms: Ficus roxburghii
Common Name: Broad-leaf Fig, Roxburgh Fig, Giant Indian Fig, Elephant Ear Fig Tree, Himalaya Fig Tree, Ara, Anjir, Kelebok, Nangtan, 大果榕
Full Sun: 6-8h Moderate Water Fruit & Vegetable Herb & Spice Fragrant Ornamental Foliage Dry Soils / Drought Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Shrubby (1m-5m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Umbrella
Maximum Height 3 m to 5 m
Maximum Plant Spread / Crown Width 5 m to 7 m


Native Distribution Himalayas, Indian subcontinent, southern China, Indochina
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Riverine)
Preferred Climate Zone Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal

Description and Ethnobotany

Others - Plant Morphology Small, non-strangling fig tree, with widely-spreading crown, low branching and short stout trunk. Injured surfaces produce cream-coloured latex. Leaves large (30x30cm), heart-shaped, prominently-veined, hairy underneath; young leaves pinkish-brown.Fleshy fruit-like structures (synconiums) produced in clusters directly on basal branches and trunk -- a phenomenon known as cauliflory. Synconiums large and hollow, bearing numerous tiny flowers on inner wall. Wild forms are divided into gall trees (male and gall flowers in same fig) and seed trees (female flowers), which are pollinated by fig wasps. Cultivated forms apparently parthenogenic, produce only female figs and are not visited by wasps. Synconiums ripen from reddish-brown to speckled reddish-purple, becoming fragrant, sweet and edible upon maturity.Likes well-drained soils rich in organic matter. Eye-catching large leaves make tree suitable as specimen plant in parks and large gardens. Species epithet 'auriculata' (meaning ear-like) describes shape of leaves or scales around fig's opening (ostiole).
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits, Edible Leaves)
Food (Herb and Spice;Fruit & Vegetable)
[Others]: Young figs are quite tasteless, but either eaten raw with sambal belacan, or cooked with mutton curry. Ripe figs used to make jams. Infusion of leaves consumed in Malaysia to treat diabetes and high blood pressure. Young leaves used as fodder for cattle and other livestock.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Fragrant (Fruits), Ornamental Foliage, Ornamental Fruits
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Dry Soils / Drought, Fertile Loamy Soils, Well-Drained Soils
Landscape Uses General, Focal Plant
Thematic Landscaping Naturalistic Garden
SGMP Treatment
Usage Hazard - Cons Weak Branches, Low Crown / Clearance
Usage Hazard - Cons Remarks Lower branches tend to break after storm due to weight of rainwater collected on large leaves.
Species record last updated on: 20 April 2020.