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Ficus crassiramea subsp. crassiramea


Ficus crassiramea (Miq.) Miq. subsp. crassiramea

Family Name: Moraceae
Common Name: Collared Fig


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Infraspecific Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Umbrella, Broad / Mushroom / Hemispherical


Native Distribution Myanmar, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, Borneo, Java, New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest, Coastal Forest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a strangling fig with a broad and spreading crown, up to 30 m tall.
Crown Broad and spreading, umbrella shape.
Foliage Leaves are leathery, spirally arranged, oblong to narrow drop-shaped, measuring between 8–38 cm long by 2.5–16 cm wide.
Flowers Flowers are tiny, enclosed within the syconium (fig).
Fruits The fig is round, partially covered by yellowish green bracts, turns from yellow to dark red coloured upon maturity. Figs are produced along the axils, in pairs or solitary, each measures between 0.8–3.5 cm wide.
Habitat It occurs in forest, often along coast and rivers, at altitudes up to 1500 m.
Associated Fauna The flowers are pollinated by fig wasps. Fruits are eaten by frugivorous birds and mammals.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed, stem cutting or air-layering.
Etymology Latin Ficus, the commercial edible fig (Ficus carica); Latin crassiramea, thick; Latin ramus, branched, referring to the stout twigs
Ethnobotanical Uses Cultural / Religious ( Heritage Trees : There is currently one individual of Ficus crassiramea listed as a Heritage Tree in Singapore. It can be found on Pulau Ubin. To find out more about these trees, please visit the Heritage Tree Register.)

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It may be suitable for parks, gardens and roadsides.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Fruits
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Easy to Grow
Landscape Uses General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens, Coastal, Shade Providing Tree / Palm

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Bird Attracting (Fruits), Caterpillar Moth Food Plant
Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna) (Insects (Ant, Beetle, Fly, Thrip, Wasp))
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna) (Vertebrates (Other Mammal))

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, Semi-Shade
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Propagation Method Seed, Stem Cutting (Softwood), Air-Layering


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical, Oblong)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acute
Foliar Base Cuneate

Non - Foliar and Storage

Trunk Type (Non Palm) Woody
Root Type Aboveground (Aerial Root), Underground (Tap Root)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Unisexual Flowers
Flower & Plant Sexuality 2 Monoecious
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Inflorescence Type Syconium

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Red, Yellow / Golden
Fruit Classification Multiple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Fleshy Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Multiple Syconium (receptacle)


References Berg. C.C. & Corner. E.J.H (2005). Moraceae: Ficeae. Flora Malesiana, ser. 1 Seed Plants, vol. 17. Leiden: Naturalis Biodiversity Center.

Image Repository



Master ID 29867
Species ID 4176
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 31 October 2022.