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Kopsia fruticosa


Kopsia fruticosa (Roxb.) A.DC.

Family Name: Apocynaceae
Synonyms: Cerbera fruticosa, Kopsia vincaeflora, Acokanthera roxburghii, Kopsia roxburghii
Common Name: Pink Kopsia, Shrub Vinca, Kopsia Merah, Pink Gardenia, Chabai Hutan, 红花蕊木


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Shrub, Tree
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Shrubby
Maximum Height 1 m to 4 m


Native Distribution Myanmar
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Non-native

Description and Ethnobotany

Others - Plant Morphology Growth Form: Usually an evergreen woody shrub with a spreading growth habit, but occasionally a small tree. Stem: Young stems are covered in tiny, soft hairs (puberulent). Mature stem has greyish bark and indistinct angles. Foliage: Opposite leaves are narrowly elliptic or oblong with wavy leaf margin and distinct drip tip (10 - 23 cm long, 2.5 - 9 cm wide). Glossy, leathery leaves have slightly sunken veins that create a quilt-like texture. Flowers: Salverform, 5-lobed flowers are pink with a dark red throat (3 - 5 cm long, 1.5 - 2.5 cm wide). Flowers are arranged in small clusters near the stem tips. Fruits: Fleshy, pitted, 1-seeded fruits are known as drupes (2.5 cm long, 2 cm wide). They are dull red, ellipsoid and covered in soft hairs. Landscaping: This species is planted as an ornamental shrub, because it produces lovely pink flowers throughout the year. It is usually planted in small groups and can be used as a hedge or barrier. In addition, this plant grows well in containers and would be suitable for a sunny patio. Cultivation: This species grows slowly at about 10 cm a year. Specimens should be planted 0.5 - 0.6 m apart in fertile, well-draining soil that is slightly acidic to neutral (pH 6.5 - 7.5). This species is highly adaptable, tolerating both drought and waterlogged soils. It will flower best under full sun, but it also grows well under partial shade. Avoid pruning frequently, because it inhibits both flowering and overall growth. Propagation: Propagate by seed, stem cuttings, marcotting and air layering. Etymology: The species epithet "fruticosa" is derived from the Latin word for bushy ("fruticosus"), referring to the species' growth habit.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers
Landscape Uses General, Hedge / Screening, Container Planting
Thematic Landscaping Butterfly Garden

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, Semi-Shade
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Rootzone Tolerance Fertile Loamy Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Waterlogged Soils (Drains Site), Drought Tolerant
Maintenance Requirements Moderate
Propagation Method Seed, Stem Cutting, Marcotting, Air-Layering


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth, Glossy / Shiny, Leathery, Raised / Sunken Veins
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Opposite
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical, Oblong)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire - Wavy / Undulate
Foliar Apex - Tip Acute
Foliar Base Acute
Typical Foliar Area Mesophyll ( 45cm2 - 182.25 cm2 ), Macrophyll ( 182.25cm2 - 1640.25 cm2 )
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Non - Foliar and Storage

Trunk Type (Non Palm) Woody
Bark Colour(s) greyish
Stem Type & Modification Woody
Root Type Underground (Tap Root)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower Colour(s) Pink, Red, White
Flower Symmetry Radial
Individual Flower Shape Salverform
Flower Size - Remarks 3 - 5 cm long, 1.5 - 2.5 cm wide
Flowering Period Free-Flowering
Flowering Habit Polycarpic
Inflorescence Size Remarks Pink --> White

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Red
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type Fleshy Fruit , Drupe

Image Repository



Master ID 1693
Species ID 2986
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 29 August 2023.