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Syzygium borneense


Syzygium borneense (Miq.) Miq.

Family Name: Myrtaceae
Synonyms: Eugenia pseudosubtilis, Eugenia irregularis, Eugenia borneensis, Eugenia litseifolia, Eugenia microcalyx var. obovata, Syzygium glaucescens, Syzygium myrtillus var. borneense, Syzygium litseifolium, Syzygium irregulare
Common Name: Bullate Eugenia


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Oval
Maximum Height 16 m to 20 m


Native Distribution From Vietnam, through Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore to Borneo
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Monsoon Forest, Secondary Rainforest, Freshwater Swamp Forest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Least Concern (LC))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree that can grow up to 20 m tall and attain 120 cm in trunk girth size.
Foliage Its opposite, stalked leaves have leaf blades that are leathery, dark shiny green above, paler green below, lance-shaped or oval or egg-shaped, and 5–20 cm by 2–9.5 cm. Each leaf blade has 1 vein running parallel to the blade margin, 8–14 pairs of side veins with bulging upwards of the blade in between, and a short pointed or blunt leaf tip.
Flowers It produces bisexual flowers that are small, yellowish-white, about 4 mm across, and are found in up to 5–16 cm long flower clusters located at the axils of its leaves or ends of its branches.
Fruit It produces fleshy fruits that are round, white tinged red or pink, about 0.4–0.8 cm across, and have 1 somewhat-round seed each.
Habitat It usually grows in primary and secondary lowland forests and freshwater swamp forests.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are probably pollinated by bats, and its fruits are probably eaten by birds.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Greek syzygos, joined, referring to the paired leaves of this species; Latin borneense, of Borneo, referring to one locality in the natural distribution of the species
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts : Edible Fruits

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It is suitable for parks and roadside planting.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Foliage
Landscape Uses General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens
Thematic Landscaping Naturalistic Garden
SGMP Treatment

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Bird Attracting (Fruits)
Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Rootzone Tolerance Fertile Loamy Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Moist Soils
Maintenance Requirements Moderate
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth, Glossy / Shiny, Raised / Sunken Veins
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Opposite
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Oval, Lanceolate, Elliptical)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Non - Foliar and Storage

Trunk Type (Non Palm) Woody
Stem Type & Modification Woody
Root Type Underground (Tap Root, Fibrous Root)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Cream / Off-White
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial
Ovary Position Inferior / Epipgynous
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Red, White
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type Fleshy Fruit , Berry

Image Repository



Master ID 1862
Species ID 3155
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 08 December 2022.