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Terminalia phellocarpa


Terminalia phellocarpa King

Family Name: Combretaceae
Common Name: Pig's Mango, Mempelam Babi, Pelawei, Jelawei, Pauh Kijang


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Maximum Height 20 m


Native Distribution Sumatra, Malaysia, and Singapore
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Freshwater Swamp Forest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Extinct (EX))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree up to 20 m tall with a fine-leafed crown.
Foliage Its spirally arranged, stalked leaves have almost leathery leaf blades that are oval to drop-shaped, and 3.5–13 by 1.5–6.4 cm. The new leaves have rose-red veins on the undersides of their leaf blades.
Flowers Its stalkless flowers are greenish-white, unpleasant-smelling, and found in 3–4 cm-long shoots at the leaf axils.
Fruit Its mango-shaped fruits are green ripening to golden-yellow, slightly flattened, and 5–7.6 by 4–5 cm, with distinct, curved points.
Habitat It grows in swamp forests at low altitude.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are insect-pollinated. Its fruits are dispersed by water.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Latin terminus, end, referring to the leaves being borne at the ends of the twigs; Greek phellos, cork; Greek karpos, fruit, referring to the corky layer of the fruit
Ethnobotanical Uses Medicinal: A concoction of the roots is taken for boils, while the leaves are applied as poultices at the same time.

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It is suitable for planting in parks for its attractive crown and fruits.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Fruits, Ornamental Form
Landscape Uses General, Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens, Riverine, Pond / Lake / River, Marsh / Bog

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Abiotic

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, Semi-Shade
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Rootzone Tolerance Moist Soils, Waterlogged Soils (Drains Site)
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate, Spiral
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Obovate, Oval)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Green - Light Green, White
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Yellow / Golden
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type Fleshy Fruit , Non-Accessory Fruit

Image Repository



Master ID 1892
Species ID 3185
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 08 August 2022.