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Annona muricata

Family Name: Annonaceae
Common Name: Soursop, Guanabana, Prickly Custard Apple, Durian Belanda, Graviola, Durian Europa, Durian Makkah, Durian Benggala, 红毛榴莲
Full Sun: 6-8h Moderate Water Caterpillar Food Plant Fruit & Vegetable Herb & Spice Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Small (6m-15m))
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Maximum Height 10 m


Native Distribution Tropical America
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical

Description and Ethnobotany

Others - Plant Morphology Shrub or small tree, 3.0 – 10.0 m in height. Annona muricata is a low-branching and slender yet slender as its limbs are upturned. Normally evergreen, the leaves have an offensive smell, alternate, smooth, glossy and is dark green on the surface, lighter beneath. Leaves are oblong, elliptic or narrowobovate, pointed at both ends and is 6.25 – 20 cm long and 2.5 – 6.25 cm wide. Flowers may appear anywhere on the trunk, branches or twigs and is borne singly. Flower, short stalk, 4 – 5 cm long, plump, in a triangle-conical shape, have 6 petals, with 3 yellow green slightly spreading fleshy petals as the outer layer and 3 pale yellow close-set petals as the inner petals. Ripe fruit is dark green, covered with soft, short spine and is pseudocarp, broadly ovoid or ellipsoid.Able to tolerate most soil condition but not waterlogged condition. Propagated by seeds, germinate within 20 – 30 days. Soil should be kept moist and seedlings, shaded. To avoid dehydration of the shallow root system, mulching is recommended during dry and hot weather. The tree will shed off its old leaves, before new ones appear, in too dry a situation. Fruits will appear after 3 – 5 years.Best harvested when the fruit is fully-grown and firm as if it is allowed to soften on the tree, it will fall and crushed. The fruits is considered as mature when their spines are far apart and the shiny green colour becomes dull-green or yellowish-green. Fruits are best eaten 5 – 6 days after harvesting and are used as an ingredient in ice-cream, dessert, drinks, etc.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits)
Food (Fruit & Vegetable;Herb and Spice)
[Others]: Extraction from leaves is lethal to head lice and bedbugs. When grinded, the seeds are effective pesticides against head lice. The juice of the fruit is said to be able to increase the amount of urine, and treat urethritis and haematuria. Immature fruits are grinded and decocted as a treat for dysentery.

Landscaping Features

Landscape Uses Container Planting
Thematic Landscaping Butterfly Garden, Economic Garden
SGMP Treatment
Usage Hazard - Cons Spines/Thorns - Fruit, Low Crown / Clearance
Usage Hazard - Cons Remarks Although the fruits have spines, it is rather short, 6 mm long, and is soft.

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Caterpillar Food Plant
Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna) (Insects (Bee), Insects (Ant, Beetle, Fly, Thrip, Wasp))
Species record last updated on: 14 October 2021.