Singapore Government Logo

A Singapore Government Agency Website


Brassica juncea Broad-leaf Mustard Group

Family Name: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)
Synonyms: Brassica juncea var. rugosa, Brassica integrifolia
Common Name: Indian Mustard, Chinese Mustard, Vegetable Mustard, 芥菜
Full Sun Moderate Water Fruit or Vegetable Annual Herbaceous Plant


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Infraspecific Epithet
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Herbaceous Plant
Lifespan (in Singapore) Annual
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Rounded
Maximum Height 0.6 m
Maximum Plant Spread / Crown Width 0.5 m


Native Distribution Central Asia
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Agricultural Land)
Preferred Climate Zone Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal, Temperate, Highland / Montane
Local Conservation Status Exotic (Horticultural / Cultivated Only)

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Compact rosette of leaves.
Foliage The Head-leaf Mustard forms heads of large, obovate leaves.
Flowers Inflorescence a corymbiform raceme with numerous flowers up to 60cm long; flowers perfect, sepals green; petals bright yellow. stigma globose.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Leaves, Edible Flowers, Edible Seeds, Edible Roots)
Food (Fruit & Vegetable : The leaves can be eaten raw in salad or cooked. Oil obtained from the seed is used as a mustard flavoring. The seed is used whole in curries and pickles. Sprouted seeds can be also added to salads.)
Medicinal ( The seed is a warming stimulant herb with antibiotic effects. The seed is used in the treatment of tumours in China. In Korea, the seeds are used in the treatment of abscesses, cold, and stomach disorders. Oil obtained from the seed is used in the treatment of skin eruptions and ulcers.)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Pest(s) Chewing Insects
Propagation Method Seed
Seed or Spore Germination Duration From 3
Seed or Spore Germination Duration To 5
Seed or Spore Germination Duration Unit Days


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Bulging in between Veins
Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) Green
Young Flush Texture(s) Smooth
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Rosulate / Rosette
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net, Parallel
Foliar Margin Entire - Wavy / Undulate, Pinnately Lobed / Pinnatifid
Foliar Apex - Tip Rounded

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower Colour(s) Yellow / Golden
Flower Texture(s) Smooth
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial
Individual Flower Shape Cruciform / Cross-shaped
Inflorescence Type Raceme
Inflorescence Size - Length 0.6
Inflorescence Size - Unit m
Inflorescence Type Remarks corymbiform raceme

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Brown
Mature Fruit Texture(s) Smooth

Image Repository



Master ID 31541
Species ID 5940
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 31 May 2022.