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Capsicum chinense


Capsicum chinense Jacq.

Family Name: Solanaceae
Common Name: Habanero Pepper, Bonnet Pepper, Datil Pepper, Piri-Piri Pepper, Squash Pepper, 黄灯笼辣椒


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Shrub
Lifespan (in Singapore) Annual
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular
Maximum Height 0.3 m to 0.8 m
Maximum Plant Spread / Crown Width 0.3 m to 0.6 m


Native Distribution Brazil, Colombia
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Non-native

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Herbaceous perennial up to 0.8 m tall.
Foliage Light to medium green leaves are typically egg-shaped (up to 15 cm long, 10 cm wide). The leaf surface is crinkled.
Flowers Star-shaped flowers are composed of greenish white, egg-shaped petals.
Fruits Fruits vary considerably in terms of size and shape (0.6 - 12.7 cm long). They may be long and thin or short with rounded edges.
Cultivation This species is attacked by pests common to tomatoes, peppers, and eggplants, so try not to re-plant the same area with these types of plants.
Etymology The specific epithet 'chinense' means that the plant comes from China. However, this species is actually native to Brazil and Colombia.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits, Edible Seeds)
Food (Herb and Spice : The fruits are intensely spicy.)

Landscaping Features

Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Dry Soils / Drought, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Landscape Uses Container Planting
Thematic Landscaping Economic Garden

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Propagation Method Seed


Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green, Green - Light Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Crinkled / Twisted
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Ovate)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) White
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial
Individual Flower Shape Stellate / Star-shaped
Flowering Habit Polycarpic
Inflorescence Type Remarks Flowers typically occur in clusters of 2 or more in the leaf axils (the angle between the upper surface of the leaf and the stem).

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Texture(s) Smooth
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Fleshy Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Non-Accessory Fruit

Image Repository



Master ID 31571
Species ID 5970
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 20 August 2021.