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Capsicum annuum (red bell pepper)


Capsicum annuum (red bell pepper)

Family Name: Solanaceae
Common Name: Capsicum, Bell Pepper, Cili Benggala, 灯笼椒


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Infraspecific Epithet
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Shrub
Lifespan (in Singapore) Annual
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Shrubby
Maximum Height 1.5 m


Native Habitat Terrestrial (Agricultural Land)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
Local Conservation Status Non-native (Horticultural / Cultivated Only)

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Annual herb to semi-woody shrub that grows erect up to 1.5 m tall.
Foliage Leaves are elliptical, alternately arranged along the stem, has entire margin and a pointy tip.
Flowers White, star-shaped flowers hang downwards from the stem. They are composed of 5 triangular, slightly cupped petals.
Fruit Shiny, smooth fruits are botanically classified as berries. The flesh is crisp and juicy with a mild flavour. The skin is initially medium green and later turns to red. The interior is mostly filled with air and a large number of cream-coloured, disk-shaped seeds.
Cultivation Keeping the fruit longer on the plant before harvesting increases its sweetness and Vitamin C content. Seeds may take 7 to 10 days to germinate. Depending on the varieties, the plant may take 90 to 120 days to mature. Grow the plant in a sunny location with a stake for support as the fruit may be heavy for the plant.
Etymology The genus epithet 'Capsicum' refers to the hot taste of the fruit. The specific epithet 'annuum' means annual, which refers to the plant growth cycle in a year.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts : Edible Fruits
Food (Fruit & Vegetable): Red bell peppers are widely consumed raw or cooked as a vegetable. They are rich in vitamins A and C. Cooking the peppers at higher heat for longer periods of time may destroy some of their nutrient content. The green bell peppers sold in supermarkets are typically red bell peppers that were harvested before they could turn red.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Fruits
Landscape Uses Container Planting, Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens
Thematic Landscaping Economic Garden

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Bird Attracting (Fruits)
Pollination Method(s)
Seed or Spore Dispersal

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Rootzone Tolerance Easy to Grow, Fertile Loamy Soils, Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils
Fertilizing Apply fertilizer high in K (potassium) to induce flowering and fruiting once every 2 weeks.
Potential Problems Aphids, mealybugs, whiteflies, thrips
Diseases Root Rot caused by Phytophthora capsici. This disease appears when soil is excessively wet due to overhead irrigation or heavy rain.
Pest(s) Sucking Insects
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth
Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) Green
Young Flush Texture(s) Smooth
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire - Wavy / Undulate
Foliar Apex - Tip Acuminate
Foliar Base Cuneate

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) White
Flower Texture(s) Smooth
Flower Symmetry Radial
Individual Flower Shape Stellate / Star-shaped
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Green
Mature Fruit Texture(s) Smooth, Glossy / Shiny
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type
Mature Seed Colour(s) Cream / Off-White
Mature Seed Texture(s) Smooth
Seed Quantity Per Fruit Numerous (>20)

Image Repository



Master ID 32106
Species ID 6512
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 21 March 2022.