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Capsicum annuum (cayenne)

Family Name: Solanaceae
Common Name: Cayenne Pepper Plant
Full Sun Moderate Water Herb or Spice Annual Shrub


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Infraspecific Epithet
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Shrub
Lifespan (in Singapore) Annual
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Maximum Height 0.3 m to 1.2 m
Maximum Plant Spread / Crown Width 0.2 m to 0.4 m


Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
Local Conservation Status Non-native (Horticultural / Cultivated Only)

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Annual herb up to 0.3 m tall.
Foliage Green, smooth leaves are elliptic (3 cm long, 1.5 cm wide).
Flowers White, star-shaped flowers are about 1 cm wide and occur singly in the leaf axil (the junction between the leaf petiole and stem). Each flower contains about 5 stamens (male flower part) which bear black, oval anthers (pollen-bearing part). A yellow stigma (female flower part) is about the same length as the stamens and is positioned in the middle of them.
Fruits Glossy, red peppers are narrow and twisted, tapering to a thin, curled tip (9.5 cm long, 1 cm wide). The surface is wrinkled and hairless.  
Cultivation Seeds may take 7 to 10 days to germinate. Depending on the varieties, the plant may take 100 to 120 days to mature.
Etymology Cayenne peppers are named after the city of Cayenne which is located in French Guiana, South America.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits)
Food (Herb and Spice)

Landscaping Features

Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Landscape Uses Container Planting
Thematic Landscaping Economic Garden

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water


Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth, Crinkled / Twisted
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire - Wavy / Undulate
Foliar Apex - Tip Acute
Foliar Base Cuneate

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) White
Flower Grouping Solitary
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial
Individual Flower Shape Stellate / Star-shaped

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Red
Mature Fruit Texture(s) Glossy / Shiny, Wrinkled
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Fleshy Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Non-Accessory Fruit
Mature Seed Colour(s) Cream / Off-White

Image Repository



Master ID 32116
Species ID 6522
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 21 March 2022.