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Euphorbia hypericifolia


Euphorbia hypericifolia L.

Family Name: Euphorbiaceae
Common Name: Graceful Spurge, Large Spotted Spurge, Graceful Sandmat, 通奶草


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Herbaceous Plant
Lifespan (in Singapore) Annual
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Maximum Height 0.6 m


Native Distribution Tropical, Subtropical America
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
Local Conservation Status Non-native

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Annual herb up to 0.6 m tall with spreading or erect growth habit.
Foliage Leaves are elliptic to oblong and arranged in pairs (1-2 cm long, 0.5-1 cm wide). Leaf margin is lined with minute teeth.
Flowers Unisexual flowers are arranged in a flower-like inforescence known as a cyathium. A cyathium is composed of 1 tiny female flower surrounded by several male flowers. The cyathia are grouped together in a head.
Fruit Dry, dehiscent fruit is known as a capsule (1.5 mm wide). Each 3-lobed fruit produces 3 greyish purple, egg-shaped seeds (1 mm long). Seeds are 4-angled and slightly wrinkled. 
Cultivation The species is generally considered a weed, but there are a few ornamental cultivars.
Ethnobotanical Uses Medicinal: In tropical and subtropical American folk medicine, a decoction or infusion prepared from the leaves and roots is used to treat various gastrointestinal disorders.

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna) (Insects (Ant, Beetle))

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water


Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Opposite
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical, Oblong)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Serrate / Toothed, Ciliate / Hairy

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Unisexual Flowers , Monoecious
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Inflorescence Type Cyathium

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type Dehiscent Dry Fruit , Capsule

Image Repository



Master ID 32218
Species ID 6624
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 02 February 2023.