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Terminalia copelandii


Terminalia copelandii Elmer

Family Name: Combretaceae
Synonyms: Terminalia crassiramea Merr., Terminalia gigantea Sloot., Terminalia catappoides C. T. White & Francis ex Lane-Poole
Common Name: Ketapang, Ketapang Darat, Talisai Paya


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants)
Plant Growth Form Tree
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Tiered
Maximum Height 40 m


Native Distribution Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea.
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Non-native

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a large tree, up to 40 m tall, with grey or brown bark.
Foliage Leaves are spirally arranged on the branch. They are obovate shaped (15 – 40 cm long and 4.5 – 18 cm wide) with 24 – 30 pairs of lateral veins which are almost perpendicular to the midrib. The upper surface of the leaf is glossy while the underside is sparsely hairy (pubescent) and sometimes minutely warty (verrucose). The leaf tip is rounded while the leaf base is subcordate. Domatia are present but inconspicuous. The leaf stalk (petiole) is 0.5 – 1cm long. Both the leaf stalk and young leaf are hairy at first and gradually becoming glabrous as they mature.
Flowers Flowers occur in a cluster as a spiked inflorescence at axillary position. Inflorescence is 25 – 50 cm long, and comprises of numerous white to cream coloured flowers.
Fruits Fruit is variable, about 3.5 – 6 cm long and 2.2 – 3 cm wide. Its shape ranges from ovoid, ellipsoid, to obscurely 5-lobed. It has sparse appressed hairs or nearly smooth when mature.
Habitat It is found in terrestrial forests up to 500 m altitude.
Associated Fauna Flowers are pollinated by insects.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology The genus Terminalia, in Latin, refers to the plant’s leaves that are clustered at the end of end of the twigs. The specific epithet copelandii commemorates Edwin Bingham Copeland (1873–1964), an American botanist, agriculturalist and pteridologist who worked in the Philippines.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Seeds)
Timber & Products ( The timber is used to build houses, make canoe and veneer. )
[Others]: The kernels of the fruit are said to be edible.

Landscaping Features

Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Well-Drained Soils
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate



Coode, M. J. E. (1973) Notes on Terminalia L. (Combretaceae) in Papuasia. Contributions from Herbarium Australiense, No 2, pp. 1 – 33. 

Exell, A.W. (1954). Combretaceae. In: G.G.G.J. van Steenis (ed.), Flora Malesiana, Ser. 1, vol 4, pp. 533–589. Djakarta: Noordhoff-Kolff. 

Lemmens, R.H.M.J., Soerianegara, I., and Wong, W.C. (Editors). 1995. Plant Resources of South-East Asia Volume 5 (2). Timber Trees: Minor commercial timbers. Indonesia: Prosea Foundation. 655 pages.


Image Repository



Master ID 32505
Species ID 6917
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 10 May 2022.