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Helianthus annuus 'Velvet Queen'

Family Name: Asteraceae (Compositae)
Common Name: Velvet Queen Sunflower
Full Sun Moderate Water Bird-Attracting Plant Ornamental Flowers Annual Herbaceous Plant


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Infraspecific Epithet
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants)
Plant Growth Form Herbaceous Plant
Lifespan (in Singapore) Annual
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Columnar
Maximum Height 1.5 m

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Annual herb with a branching growth habit up to 1.5 m tall.
Flowers The sunflower is not a single flower, but a compound flower or inflorescence known as a head which is composed of dark red, petal-like ray florets and black disk florets. 
Fruits The fruit is what we commonly call the sunflower seed. Technically known as an achene, it is a dry, indehiscent, one-seeded fruit.
Cultivation Space plants about 45 cm apart. This cultivar begins to bloom about 60 days after sowing seed. It grows best when the soil is watered thoroughly but allowed to dry slightly before re-watering. Amend the soil with compost and avoid over-fertilising with liquid fertilizers which can cause the stem to break. Try to avoid splashing the leaves with water. Use a bamboo stake or similar item to support the stem.
Etymology The genus Helianthus comes from the Greek words that mean sun ('helios') and flower ('anthos'). The specific epithet annuus means annual, referring to the annual nature of the species.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Bird Attracting (Seeds)
Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna) (Insects (Bee))

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Planting Distance To 45
Transplanting Tolerance Good
Maintenance Requirements Moderate
Fertilizing When the plant reaches 0.6 m in height, reduce fertilisation to prevent stem breakage.
Potential Problems Young plants are susceptible to attack by slugs.
Pest(s) Chewing Insects
Propagation Method Seed
Seed or Spore Germination Duration From 7
Seed or Spore Germination Duration To 21
Seed or Spore Germination Duration Unit Days


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Cordate)
Foliar Venation Palmate
Foliar Margin Serrate / Toothed
Foliar Apex - Tip Acute
Foliar Base Cordate
Typical Foliar Area Mesophyll ( 45cm2 - 182.25 cm2 ), Macrophyll ( 182.25cm2 - 1640.25 cm2 )

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower Colour(s) Red
Flower Texture(s) Wrinkled
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Inflorescence Type Head / Capitulum
Inflorescence Size - Width 15
Inflorescence Size - Unit cm

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Black
Mature Fruit Texture(s) Smooth
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Indehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Achene
Mature Seed Colour(s) Silver / Grey

Image Repository



Master ID 32859
Species ID 7273
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 20 August 2021.