Singapore Government Logo

A Singapore Government Agency Website


Helianthus annuus 'Selma Suns'

Family Name: Asteraceae (Compositae)
Common Name: Sunflower, 向日葵
Full Sun Moderate Water Bird-Attracting Plant Ornamental Flowers Annual Drought Tolerant Herbaceous Plant


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Infraspecific Epithet
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants)
Plant Growth Form Herbaceous Plant
Lifespan (in Singapore) Annual
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Open
Maximum Height 2.1 m to 2.4 m

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Annual herb up to 1.5-2.4 m tall.
Foliage Large, triangular leaves are alternately arranged and have a toothed leaf margin.
Flowers Compound inflorescence, known as a head, is 8-15 cm wide. Flowers are bi-coloured to multi-coloured in varying shades of yellow, red, orange and brown. Each plant produces 6-30 heads located in the leaf axils or at the stem tip.
Fruits Although commonly referred to as sunflower seeds, they are actually fruits.
Others - Plant Morphology Plants accumulate calcium, manganese, zinc and copper from the soil.
Cultivation This cultivar blooms at about 61 days. Plants produce viable seed through self-pollination. After establishment, they are tolerant to drought. Water thoroughly and then allow the soil to dry slightly before re-watering.
Etymology The specific epithet 'annuus' means annual in Latin.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits, Edible Seeds)
Cut - Dried Flower ( Cut flowers are long-lasting.)

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Dry Soils / Drought, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils, Easy to Grow
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens, Flowerbed / Border

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Bird Attracting
Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna) (Insects (Bee), Insects (Ant, Beetle, Fly, Thrip, Wasp))

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Planting Distance From 30
Planting Distance To 45
Soil pH Range From 5.7
Soil pH Range To 8.1
Planting Remarks Sow seeds about 1 cm deep.
Maintenance Requirements Low
Propagation Method Seed
Seed or Spore Germination Duration To 14
Seed or Spore Germination Duration Unit Days


Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Deltoid)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower Colour(s) Brown, Red, Yellow / Golden
Flower Texture(s) Wrinkled
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Terminal
Flower Symmetry Asymmetrical
Individual Flower Shape Ligulate / Strap-shaped
Inflorescence Type Head / Capitulum
Flowering Period Free-Flowering

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Black
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Indehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Caryopsis / Grain

Image Repository



Master ID 32965
Species ID 7379
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 20 August 2021.