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Shorea johorensis Foxw.

Family Name: Dipterocarpaceae
Synonyms: Shorea leptoclados Symington
Common Name: Meranti Pepijat, Majau, Seraya Majau, Meranti Majau

Shorea johorensis , also known as Meranti Pepijat is a critically endangered tree in Singapore. Growing up to 50 m tall, it has prominent scale-like domatia on its leaves and winged fruit. The wood is used for light construction, musical instruments and plywood.

Full Sun Moderate Water Native to Singapore Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Common Names
Species Summary

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants)
Plant Growth Form Tree
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Broad / Mushroom / Hemispherical
Maximum Height 50 m


Native Distribution Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore Sumatra and Borneo
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree, up to 50 m tall, and 1.6 m diameter. It has large and hemispherical crown, and buttresses up to 3 m tall.
Foliage The leaves are oval shaped (9 – 14 cm long and 4.2 – 7.5 cm wide.), papery to thinly leathery and in alternate arrangement. The leaf tip is shortly pointed (up to 7 mm long) while the leaf base is obtuse. Each leaf has 10 – 12 pairs of lateral veins which are faintly visible above while prominently visible on the underside. The first 3 - 6 pairs of lateral veins usually have prominent scale-like domatia and the basal 2 pairs are fused along the midrib on each side. The tertiary veins are ladder-like (scalariform). Stipule is lanceolate and small (0.35 cm long and 0.07 cm wide), and the petiole is about 1.5 – 2 cm long. Short persistent grey hairs are found on the twigs, flower stalks, leaf buds, stipules, petioles, midrib on the upper side of the leaf as well as the lateral veins on underside of the leaves.
Flowers Inflorescence is about 15 cm long and slightly pendulous. Each branchlet bears up to 18 secund flowers. Petals are pale yellow and densely hairy on the parts that are exposed in bud. Each flower has 15 stamens with oblong anthers. The connectival appendage is glabrous and 3 times as long as the anther. Ovary is globose. Style is thread-like (filiform) and twice as long as the ovary. Stylopodium is indistinct.
Fruits The fruit is winged and dry. They are borne on stalk which are 4 – 5mm long. Each fruit comprises of three long calyx lobes (up to 12 cm long and 2.3 cm wide), two shorter lobes (up to 6.5 cm long and 0.6 cm wide) and one oval-shaped nut (2 cm long and 1.4 cm wide) with a short style remnant at the tip.
Habitat It is found in lowland rainforests on well-drained and gently undulating terrain, up to 600 m altitude.
Similar Shorea johorensis is similar to Shorea pauciflora. Foliage, floral and fruit features are key to tell them apart. S. johorensis usually has scale-like domatia at the base of the first 3 – 6 pairs of lateral veins, the connectival appendages are glabrous, and fruits are prominently stalked. While S. pauciflora occasionally have a few glabrous domatia, the connectival appendages are bristle-like towards the tip and fruits are subsessile.
Associated Fauna Flowers are pollinated by insects.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Latin Shorea, commemorating Sir John Shore (1793-1798), the Governor-General for the British East India Company; Latin johorensis, refers to Johor, Peninsular Malaysia, one of the places where it occurs naturally.
Ethnobotanical Uses Timber & Products ( The timber is used as light red meranti. It is used for light construction such as light-duty flooring, shelves, musical instruments, coffins, toys and wooden matches. It is also used to make plywood, both as face and core veneer. )

Landscaping Features

Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Well-Drained Soils
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens, Reforestation

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Abiotic

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Papery, Leathery
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Oval)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acuminate
Foliar Base Rounded / Obtuse

Non - Foliar and Storage

Trunk Type (Non Palm) Woody
Mature Bark Texture Cracked
Stem Type & Modification Woody
Root Type Underground

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower & Plant Sexuality 2 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Cream / Off-White
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary, Terminal
Flower Symmetry Radial
Individual Flower Shape Saucer-shaped
Inflorescence Type Panicle
Flowering Period Every Few Years
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Brown
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Indehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Nut / Nutlet
Seed Quantity Per Fruit Few (1-5)



Ashton, P.S. (1982). Dipterocarpaceae. In: van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (ed.) Flora Malesiana, ser.1,vol. 9, part 2, pp. 237–552, 575–600. The Hague/Boston/London: Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publishers.

Ashton, P.S. (2004). Dipterocarpaceae. In: Soepadmo, E., Saw L.G. & Chung, R.C.K. (eds) Tree Flora of Sabah Sarawak, vol. 5, pp. 63–388. Malaysia: Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)/Sabah Forestry Department/Sarawak Forestry Department.

Ganesan, S.K., Lua, H.K. and Ibrahim, A. (2018). Shorea johorensis (Dipterocarpaceae), an addition to the flora of  Singapore. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 70 (1): 19–23. 

Soerianegara, I., and Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Editors). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia Volume 5  (1). Timber Trees: Major Commercial Timbers. Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pages.


Image Repository



Master ID 33397
Species ID 7811
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 25 February 2022.