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Combretum indicum


Combretum indicum (L.) DeFilipps

Family Name: Combretaceae
Synonyms: Quisqualis indica
Common Name: Rangoon Creeper, Drunken Sailor, Akar Dani, Akar Suloh, Dani, Ara Dani, Akar Pontianak, Red Jasmine


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Climber
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic


Native Distribution Philippines, India and Malaysia
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Non-native (Spontaneous (Casual))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form A woody climber. It climbs by means of hooks and can grow up to 8m tall. 
Foliage The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs along the stem and are elliptic to elliptic-oblong in shape, it is abaxially pilose and adaxially glabrous except for the mid-vein which is brown and pilose. The leaf petiole is modified into a thorny grappling hook as a climbing aid. Leaves measure about 5 - 18 cm by 2.5 - 7 cm.
Stems The young branches are tomentose. 
Flowers The fragrant flowers are borne on a pendant raceme and are white in colour, the upper surface of the flower turns pink then red over a period of time. 
Fruit The fruit is a drupe and is red, turning dark brown when mature. The fruit is elliptic-ovate in shape and is 5-ribbed, appearing star-shaped when seen in cross-section. Fruit is glabrous and measures about 2.7 - 4 cm by 1.2 - 2.3 cm.
Similar Usually found in rain forests, hedges, mountains, riversides and wasteland; below 1500 m.
Etymology Genus name Quisqualis is derived from the Malay name "udani" and refers to the variable habit and colouring of the plant. Species name indica refers to being from India.
Ethnobotanical Uses Medicinal: Seeds are used as medicine to kill intestinal parasites.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers, Fragrant (Flowers)
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens, Trellis / Arbour / Pergola
Thematic Landscaping Fragrant / Aromatherapy Garden

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Fast
Rootzone Tolerance Well-Drained Soils
Propagation Method Seed, Stem Cutting (Softwood)


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Velvety / Furry / Tomentose
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Opposite
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acuminate
Foliar Base Rounded / Obtuse

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower Colour(s) Pink, Red, White
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Inflorescence Type Raceme

Image Repository



Master ID 201
Species ID 1497
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 08 August 2022.