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Solanum melongena


Solanum melongena L.

Family Name: Solanaceae
Common Name: Brinjal, Eggplant, Aubergine, 茄子


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Herbaceous Plant
Lifespan (in Singapore) Annual
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Maximum Height 1.5 m


Native Distribution Indo-Burmese region
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
Local Conservation Status Exotic (Horticultural / Cultivated Only)

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Erect, branching herb up to 1.5 m tall. It is a perennial plant which is commonly grown as an annual. 
Foliage Hairy leaves are ovate (egg-shaped) to ovate-oblong (elongated egg shape). Leaf margin is sinuately lobed, winding in and out like a repeating s-shaped pattern.
Stems The herbaceous stem becomes slightly woody over time.
Flowers Purple, funnel-shaped flowers have 5-6 pointed lobes which form a star-like shape. They are either bisexual or male.
Fruits The fruit, known as a berry, grows up to 40 cm long and 20 cm wide. It may be egg-shaped (with the pointed end at the base or apex), elongated or round to approximately round. The fruit has a smooth, glossy skin.
Cultivation It takes about 105-133 days from sowing to first harvest.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits, Edible Seeds)
Food (Fruit & Vegetable : Fruits are typically consumed as a cooked vegetable. However, there is a light green, elongated version which is eaten raw in Indonesia.)

Landscaping Features

Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Well-Drained Soils
Thematic Landscaping Economic Garden
Plant & Rootzone Preference or Tolerance Remarks Grows best in sandy loam.

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Potential Problems Brinjal is prone to being attacked by aphids, spider mites, whiteflies and root knot nematodes. To learn more about how to manage these pests and care for Brinjal, please click on this NParks' link: NParks' Gardening Resources.
Pest(s) Sucking Insects, Nematodes
Propagation Method Seed
Seed or Spore Germination Duration To 14
Seed or Spore Germination Duration Unit Days


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Hairy / Hirsute
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Ovate, Oblong)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Sinuate
Foliar Apex - Tip Acute, Obtuse
Foliar Base Rounded / Obtuse, Cordate
Typical Foliar Area Macrophyll ( 182.25cm2 - 1640.25 cm2 )
Typical Foliar Size From 3
Typical Foliar Size To 25
Typical Foliar Size Unit cm
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 4.5 (Shrub & Groundcover - Dicot)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Unisexual & Bisexual Flowers(Sub-dioecious)
Flower Colour(s) Purple
Flower Texture(s) Wrinkled
Flower Grouping Solitary, Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial
Individual Flower Shape Stellate / Star-shaped
Flower Size - Width 4 cm
Inflorescence Type Cyme
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Purple, White, Yellow / Golden, Black, Green
Mature Fruit Texture(s) Smooth, Glossy / Shiny
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Fleshy Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Non-Accessory Fruit
Mature Seed Colour(s) Brown
Seed Quantity Per Fruit Numerous (>20)

Image Repository



Master ID 1166
Species ID 2459
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 03 October 2022.