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Terminalia mantaly


Terminalia mantaly H. Perrier

Family Name: Combretaceae
Common Name: Madagascar Almond, Umbrella Tree, 小叶欖仁


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m), Small (6m-15m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Tiered
Maximum Height 10 m to 20 m
Maximum Plant Spread / Crown Width 10 m to 15 m


Native Distribution Madagascar
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Riverine)
Preferred Climate Zone Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal

Description and Ethnobotany

Others - Plant Morphology Small to medium tree, 10-20m height. Crown arranged in layered tiers. Bark smooth, mottled pale grey with protruding brownish lenticlels (streaks or spots).Leaves slightly glossy green, spathulate, uneven to crenate margins. Flowers small, greenish, no petals, clustered along erect inflorescence spikes (up to 5cm long). Fruits smooth, wingless drupes, green when unripe. Flowers and fruits seldom observed in Singapore.Suitable as ornamental tree along streets and in parks, due to formal neat appearance, especially majestic if planted in masses. Used for reforestation in native Madagascar. Fast-growing on good sites.
Ethnobotanical Uses Food (Herb and Spice)
Others: Bark & wood used for treating dysentery, dyeing & tanning.

Landscaping Features

Landscape Uses General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Riverine, Shade Providing Tree / Palm, Container Planting
Thematic Landscaping Formal Garden
SGMP Treatment

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, [Remarks] (Drought-tolerant when established)
Water Preference Moderate Water, [Remarks] (Drought-tolerant when established)
Plant Growth Rate Fast
Rootzone Tolerance Easy to Grow, Dry Soils / Drought
Maintenance Requirements Low
Propagation Method Stem Cutting


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth, Glossy / Shiny, Thin
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Whorled
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Spathulate)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire - Wavy / Undulate, Crenate
Foliar Apex - Tip Obtuse, Rounded
Foliar Base Cuneate
Typical Foliar Area Microphyll ( 2.25cm2 - 20.25 cm2 )
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Non - Foliar and Storage

Trunk Type (Non Palm) Woody
Bark Colour(s) Mottled pale grey, protuding brownish streaks or spots
Mature Bark Texture Smooth, Lenticellate
Stem Type & Modification Woody
Root Type Underground (Tap Root, Fibrous Root)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Green
Flower Size - Remarks Small, clustered along erect inflorescence spike, no petals
Inflorescence Type Spike
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type Fleshy Fruit , Drupe

Image Repository



Master ID 1469
Species ID 2762
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 20 August 2021.