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Elaeocarpus petiolatus (Jacq.) Wall.

Family Name: Elaeocarpaceae
Common Name: Broad-leafed Oil Fruit, Derumun Babi, Derumun Babi Hitam, Hempedu Ular, Kayu Sepuh, Medang, Medang Kelawar, Medang Keli, Medang Manih, Medang Musang, Medang Pipi Lokan, Medang Tanjung, Paruh-Paruh, 长柄杜英
Full Sun: 6-8h Moderate Water Native to Singapore Roadside Tree / Palm Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular
Maximum Height 21 m


Native Distribution Southern China, India, Myanmar, Indochina, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Common)

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree up to 21 m tall, and up to 1.2 m in girth size, with resin covering the tips of its twigs.
Foliage Its spirally arranged, long-stalked leaves have leathery leaf blades that are oblong or elliptic, tipped, green, and 7–31 by 3.8–18 cm.
Flowers Its flowers develop on flowering shoots (inflorescences) of 3–13 that occur in the leaf axils. Its white flowers are 1.3 cm across.
Fruits Its fruits are drupes that are ellipsoid or oblong, greyish-blue with green oily pulp, 1–2 by 0.8–1.2 cm. Its seeds are about 1 cm long.
Habitat It grows in lowland to hill forests, up to 1300 m altitude, and is common in old secondary forests, and forest edges. It is known locally in Central Catchment Nature Reserve.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are insect-pollinated. Its fruits are probably eaten by birds or other small mammals.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Greek elaia, olive; Greek karpos, fruit, referring to its round fruits; Latin petiolatus, having petioles, referring to the leaf stalks

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It may be suitable for parks and roadsides.
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Landscape Uses Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate, Spiral
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical, Oblong)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) White
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Blue, Silver / Grey
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Fleshy Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Non-Accessory Fruit

Image Repository



Master ID 1580
Species ID 2873
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 20 April 2020.