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Elaeocarpus stipularis var. stipularis


Elaeocarpus stipularis Blume var. stipularis

Family Name: Elaeocarpaceae
Common Name: Medang Api, Benzoin Oil-Fruit, Medang Merebok, Samat, Ton Lot, Belensi, Kungkurad, Pensi Antu, Damak-damak, Derumun Pelanduk, Jambu Kelawar, Kempening, Kepinding, Lidah Sapi, Medang Kelawar, Medang Miang, Mengkerai Hutan, Paruh, Paruh Enggang, Pinang Kelawar, Pinang Pergam, Pulai Pipit, Setui Tupai


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Infraspecific Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular
Maximum Height 18 m


Native Distribution Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo, and Java
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Vulnerable (VU))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree, up to 18 m tall, with drooping twigs.
Foliage Its spirally arranged, stalked leaves have leathery leaf blades that are elliptic to egg-shaped, densely covered with short hair below, and 7.6–17 by 2.5–8.9 cm.
Flowers Its flowers develop on flowering shoots (inflorescences) of 7.6–17 cm long in the leaf axils. Its flowers are white and 7.6–10 mm wide.
Fruits Its fruits are round or oblong, green, and 2–2.5 cm wide.
Habitat It grows in lowland and montane forests. It is known locally along Dalvey road, Napier road, and in Central Catchment Nature Reserve.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Greek elaia, olive; Greek karpos, fruit, referring to its round fruits; Latin stipularis, with stipules (a leaf-like appendage found at the base of a leaf)
Ethnobotanical Uses Medicinal ( Its leaves have medicinal properties.)
Timber & Products ( It can be harvested for timber and at times used for building houses.)
[Others]: It is cultivated as an ornamental plant.

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It may be suitable for parks and roadsides.
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Landscape Uses General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Ovate, Elliptical)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) White
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Green
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Fleshy Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Non-Accessory Fruit

Image Repository



Master ID 1581
Species ID 2874
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 31 October 2022.