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Gardenia carinata


Gardenia carinata

Family Name: Rubiaceae
Common Name: Golden Gardenia, Kedah Gardenia, Cempaka Hutan, Chempaka Utan, Randa, 大叶黄栀


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Small (6m-15m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic


Native Distribution Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Non-native (Horticultural / Cultivated Only)

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree growing up to 15 m tall.
Foliage Leaves are elliptic to obovate with entire leaf margin and prominent venation. Leaf underside is hairy.
Flowers Fragrant flowers are shaped like pinwheels. They are initially white, but turn yellow and then orange over the course of 2-3 days.  Calyx tube is five-lobed, middle marked with 5 strong keels.
Fruit Round fruits have about 5 distinct, evenly spaced ridges that run longitudinally. Fruits are yellowish green and later turn brown-black when dry.
Habitat Occurs in lowland and hill forests.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers, Fragrant (Flowers)
Landscape Uses Suitable for Roadsides, Parks & Gardens
Thematic Landscaping Golden Garden

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Rootzone Tolerance Well-Drained Soils
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Obovate)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acute
Foliar Base Attenuate
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) White, Yellow / Golden, Orange
Flower Texture(s) Smooth
Flower Grouping Solitary
Flower Symmetry Radial
Individual Flower Shape Stellate / Star-shaped
Flowering Habit Polycarpic
Flower Size 11.4 cm

Image Repository



Master ID 1639
Species ID 2932
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 18 February 2022.