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Hopea mengarawan Miq.

Family Name: Dipterocarpaceae
Common Name: Merawan Penak, Emang, Emang Jangkar, Luis, Selangan
Full Sun: 6-8h Moderate Water Native to Singapore Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular
Maximum Height 45 m


Native Distribution Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Sumatra, and Borneo
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Mountain, Secondary Rainforest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree up to 45 m tall.
Foliage Its alternate, stalked leaves have leathery leaf blades that are oblong-lance-shaped, 6-12 by 2.5-5 cm, and brownish below and golden-brown above when dry.
Flowers Each flowering shoot is up to 3 cm long and bears up to 6 white-yellowish flowers that are about 5 mm wide.
Fruits Its green-red fruits consist of a narrowly ovoid nut that is 1 by 0.5 cm, with 2 longer wings that are about 7 by 1.2 cm, and 3 shorter wings that are about 0.6 by 0.5 cm.
Habitat It grows on poor sandy to clayey soils in forests, on ridges and hillsides up to 500 m altitude. It occurs locally in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are insect-pollinated.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Latin Hopea, commemorating John Hope (1725-1768), the first Regius Keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh; Malay mengarawan, the vernacular name for this species

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It can be grown in parks and large gardens.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Fruits, Ornamental Form
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Landscape Uses General, Parks & Gardens

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Abiotic

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Maintenance Requirements Moderate
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Foliar Modification Stipule
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Lanceolate, Oblong)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Cream / Off-White
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Symmetry Radial

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Brown, Green, Red
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Indehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Nut / Nutlet

Image Repository



Master ID 1664
Species ID 2957
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 26 August 2021.