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Hopea ferruginea Parijs

Family Name: Dipterocarpaceae
Synonyms: Hopea intermedia (non King) Foxw., Hopea micrantha (non Hook.f.) Dyer, Hopea myrtifolia (non Miq.) Heyne, Hopea pierrei (non Hance) Foxw.
Common Name: Banjutan, Betotas, Bunyit, Damar mata kuching, Damar putih, Luis, Merawan putih, anakan, Selangan, Selangan batu, Selangan penak
Full Sun: 6-8h Semi-Shade Moderate Water Native to Singapore Ornamental Foliage Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Broad / Mushroom / Hemispherical
Maximum Height 41 m
Tree or Palm – Trunk Diameter 59 cm


Native Distribution From Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore to Sumatra, east to Borneo and the Philippines
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Tall tree, up to 41 m tall and 59 cm diameter at breast height.
Trunk Trunk with resin when cut.
Foliage Leaves are simple, arranged in an alternate fashion. The secondary veins are inconspicuous, close to each other and occasionally possess domatia.
Flowers The yellow flowers are about 4 mm wide, borne on short inflorescences.
Fruits The fruit is about 7 mm long with two wings that are about 30 mm long.
Habitat In dipterocarp forests, hillsides and ridges, from sea level up to 1500 m.
Etymology The genus Hopea was named in honour of Dr John Hope (1725-1786) who was a Scottish botanist at the Edinburgh Botanic Garden. The sepcific epithet ferruginea means 'rusty brown' in Latin.

Landscaping Features

Landscaping This tree is suitable for planting in parks and large gardens.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Foliage
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils
Landscape Uses General, Parks & Gardens

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Abiotic

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, Semi-Shade
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) Red
Young Flush Texture(s) Leathery
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acuminate
Foliar Base Oblique / Asymmetrical

Non - Foliar and Storage

Branch Angle (wrt vertical) Acute
Trunk Type (Non Palm) Woody
Root Type Underground (Tap Root)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower Colour(s) Yellow / Golden
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Symmetry Radial
Flower Size - Width 4 mm
Inflorescence Type Panicle
Flowering Period Every Few Years

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Indehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Nut / Nutlet
Seed Quantity Per Fruit Few (1-5)


References Khoo, M.S., Chua, S.C. and Lum, S.K.Y. 2018. An annotated list of new records for Singapore: results from large-scale tree surveys at the Bukit Timah Nature Reserve. Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 70 (1): 57–65. 

Image Repository



Master ID 31165
Species ID 5559
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 20 August 2021.