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Hopea griffithii Kurz

Family Name: Dipterocarpaceae
Common Name: Merawan Jantan, Perawan, Pengerawan Bunga
Full Sun Semi Shade Moderate Water Native to Singapore Ornamental Flowers Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular
Tree or Palm – Trunk Diameter 2


Native Distribution Peninsular Myanmar, Tarutao Island (Thailand), Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo.
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))
CITES Protection True

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree up to 40 m tall.
Trunk The bark is smooth, dark coloured with lighter patches, becoming rough and fissured when old. The bark sheds in small oblong shaped scales.
Roots Its buttress roots are sharp, tall and stilted.
Foliage Its  alternate, stalked leaves have leathery leaf blades that are ovate to elliptic-lanceolate, with a long pointed tip, 4-9 cm by 1.7-3 cm, and purplish brown above and yellowish brown below when dry. The midrib is depressed on top.
Flowers Its dark red flowers have five lanceolate petals. Flowers are borne on terminal or axillary branched panicles that are up to 2.5 cm long.
Fruits Its fruits consist of an ovoid nut that is 0.7 by 0.5 cm, with 2 longer wings that are about 3 by 0.5 cm, and 3 shorter wings that are about 0.8 by 0.1 cm.
Habitat It grows in forests on leached, yellow clayey soil up to 500 m altitude. It occurs locally in Bukit Timah Nature Reserve.
Associated Fauna It has insect-pollinated flowers.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Latin Hopea, commemorating John Hope (1725-1768), the first Regius Keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh; Latin griffithii, commemorating William Griffith (1810-1845), a surgeon in the British East India Company at Malacca, Peninsular Malaysia
Ethnobotanical Uses Timber & Products ( The tree is harvested for timber.)

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It may be suitable for parks.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers, Ornamental Fruits
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils, Heavy Clay Soils
Landscape Uses General, Parks & Gardens, Shade Providing Tree / Palm, Focal Plant, Reforestation

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Abiotic

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, Semi-Shade
Water Preference Moderate Water
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Ovate, Lanceolate, Elliptical)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acuminate, Caudate

Non - Foliar and Storage

Trunk Type (Non Palm) Woody
Mature Bark Texture Smooth, Fissured
Root Type Underground

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Red
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary, Terminal
Flower Symmetry Radial
Inflorescence Type Panicle
Flowering Period Every Few Years
Flower Colour(s) Remarks Dark red

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Brown
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Indehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Nut / Nutlet

Image Repository



Master ID 31268
Species ID 5663
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 20 August 2021.