Singapore Government Logo

A Singapore Government Agency Website


Hopea nutans

Family Name: Dipterocarpaceae
Synonyms: Hopea lowii
Common Name: Giam, Chengal Batu, Cengal Keras, Cengal Pelanduk
Full Sun Moderate Water Coastal Plant Suitable for Roadsides Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants)
Plant Growth Form Tree


Native Distribution Peninsular Malaysia, Borneo
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Hopea nutans can grow up to 30 m tall and 2.5 m girth with a heavy crown. 
Trunk Trunk is dark brown colour and bark sheds in long flakes. 
Foliage Leaves are leathery and ovate (about 8 – 13 cm x 4.5 – 8.5 cm) with acuminate apex. Leaf has ladder-like venation and about 9 pairs of secondary veins. Petiole is 12 mm long with short sparsely pale brown hairs. Stipules are very small (2.5mm long) and fall off early.
Flowers It has panicle inflorescence (7 cm long). Flowers have pale yellow petals and 15 stamens in 3 subequal whorls. 
Fruits Fruit has 2 enlarged calyx lobes (about 8 cm long). The nut (about 15 mm long) is loosely embraced at the base by the calyx lobes. 
Habitat Coastal hills
Cultivation Seedlings require shade and intolerant to dry condition. 
Etymology Genus name Hopea is named after Dr John Hope (1725 - 1786), who is a Scottish botanist of the Edinburgh Botanic Garden. 
Ethnobotanical Uses Timber & Products ( Hopea nutans is the main course Giam timber, which is very hard, heavy and durable. Tree is also harvested for its opaque yellow resin.)

Landscaping Features

Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Well-Drained Soils, Saline Soils / Salt Spray
Landscape Uses Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens, Coastal

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate


Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Non - Foliar and Storage

Mature Bark Texture Peeling / Flaking / Papery, Resinous / Oozing / Stained

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower Colour(s) Yellow / Golden
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence

Image Repository



Master ID 1665
Species ID 2958
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 18 February 2022.