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Mangifera foetida


Mangifera foetida Lour.

Family Name: Anacardiaceae
Common Name: Horse Mango, Bacang, Bachang, Machang, Machai, Membacang


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Maximum Height 40 m


Native Distribution Thailand, Vietnam, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree that can grow up to 40 m tall.
Foliage Its spirally arranged, stalked leaves possess rigid and thickly leathery leaf blades that are narrowly drop-shaped, oval or oblong, dark green, and 12–38 by 6–16 cm.
Flowers Its flowers develop in flowering shoots that are copper-red, and 10–41cm long. Its flowers are pinkish- or deep-red.
Fruit Its 1-seeded fruit is an obliquely egg-shaped fleshy fruit, yellowish or greyish-green, and 7.6–18 by 6–12 cm. The ripe fruit is strongly scented. The single seed is enclosed in a woody capsule in the centre of the fruit flesh.
Habitat It grows in dry lowland and hill forests, up to 1,800 m altitude. It occurs locally in the vicinity of MacRitchie Reservoir, and Singapore Botanic Gardens.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are insect-pollinated. The fruits are eaten by mammals. It is the preferred local food plant for caterpillars of the moths, Chlumetia transversa, Lymantria atemeles, Nacoleia charesalis, Orthaga icarusalis, and Thosea unifascia.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Mangi, Indian mango, vernacular name for a Mangifera species; Latin fero, to bear; Latin foetidus, bad-smelling, referring to its strongly scented fruits
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts : Edible Fruits
Food (Fruit & Vegetable): Its fruits are used in curries, pickles, rojak, and to make chutneys or sweetmeats.
Medicinal: The bark can be made into a lotion for treating ulcer. The leaves are said to alleviate or prevent fever. Its seeds are used against eczema, scabies, and trichophytosis.
Timber & Products: The wood is used for light indoor constructions.
Cultural / Religious: Heritage Tree :                                                                                         There are currently two individuals of Mangifera foetida listed as Heritage Trees in Singapore. One can be found at MacRitchie Reservoir Park. To find out more about these trees, please visit the Heritage Tree Register.
Others: The resinous sap in the stem is used to deepen tattoo scars.

Landscaping Features

Landscaping The plant has attractive flowers. This tree can tolerate the conditions of parks, large gardens, and roadsides, but because of its falling large fruits may pose a danger to pedesterians and motorists, and also can create a mess so less suitable for roadside planting.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers, Fragrant (Fruits)
Landscape Uses General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Parks & Gardens

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Rootzone Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Lanceolate)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Pink
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Symmetry Radial

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Green
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type Fleshy Fruit , Non-Accessory Fruit

Image Repository



Master ID 1719
Species ID 3012
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 01 August 2022.