Singapore Government Logo

A Singapore Government Agency Website

Mangifera indica


Mangifera indica L.

Family Name: Anacardiaceae
Common Name: Mango, Mangga, Mempelam, Pauh, Mangas, Mempalam 芒果


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Broad / Mushroom / Hemispherical
Maximum Height 30 m to 35 m
Maximum Plant Spread / Crown Width 10 m


Native Distribution India, Indochina
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form A medium to large sized tree with a dense, rounded crown with rather distinctive drooping elliptic to lanceolate leaves. It is still relatively common in parks, open spaces and community gardens in Singapore.
Foliage The leaves are simple, deep green, up to 30cm long and 7 cm wide, oblong-elliptic to lanceolate in shape, with entire and slightly undulate margins. The midrib is yellow and quite visible, and the leaves also tend to droop downwards slightly. Young flushes are coppery red to bronze in colour.
Flowers Individual flowers are tiny, yellow to pinkish white, but borne on large, showy panicles with red peduncles, and are considered fragrant. Uneven flowering within the same tree has been reported in some cultivated varieties (or cultivars) of mango including the ‘Sensation’ cultivar (Oosthuyse & Jacobs 1996, Reece et al. 1946, Lin & Chen 1981). It is uncertain why uneven flowering occurs. Oosthuyse & Jacobs (1997) found that flowering can be synchronized in ‘Sensation’ trees by pruning the inflorescences. It is possible that the inflorescence may produce hormones that signal other parts of the tree not to flower. Removing the inflorescence may eliminate the source of inhibitory signals, allowing all parts of the tree to flower. Uneven flowering is a beneficial trait in terms of promoting survival of the mango species and results in flowers being available for a longer period of time thus increasing the likelihood of successful pollination. It also prevents unfavourable weather conditions from destroying the entire crop, because dry weather is required for optimal fruit production.
Fruit The most famous part of this tree, the fruit is a large drupe, up to 20cm long, ovoid-oblong in shape, with green, yellow or red skin often slightly glaucous. It hangs from the branches on long stalks. The flesh when ripe is yellow, juicy and very fragrant. They are relished by humans and animals, including bats, birds, monkeys etc.
Associated Fauna Long-tailed Parakeet, Blue-crowned Hanging Parrot, Oriental Pied Hornbill, Black-naped Oriole, Yellow-vented Bulbul are observed to feed on the fruit.
Cultivation Requires full sun, rich, well-drained soil, and moderate watering. Requires fertilizing with high potassium and phosphate fertilizers if good fruiting is desired. Propagation is by seeds, grafting or budding.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts : Edible Fruits
Food (Herb or Spice) (Fruit or Vegetable)
Medicinal: The fruit rind(peel) is consider as tonic. The leaves produce a cooling effect and are used to treated fever and colds. The charred leaves are applied to warts to remove them. The bark increase the flow of urine and is also used to stop bleeding. The seeds are used to treat colds, coughs, diarrhoea and excessive bleeding during menstruation. The resin is used for skin diseases and to treat syphilis.
Cultural / Religious: Heritage Tree : There are 4 individuals of Mangifera indica listed as Heritage Trees in Singapore. To find out more about these trees, please visit the Heritage Tree Register.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Fragrant (Flowers) (Day)
Landscape Uses General, Shade Providing Tree / Palm

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Bird-Attracting, Butterfly Host Plant

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Rootzone Tolerance Fertile Loamy Soils
Maintenance Requirements Low
Propagation Method Seed, Stem Cutting, Grafting, Marcotting, Air-Layering


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green, Yellow / Golden
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth, Glossy / Shiny, Raised / Sunken Veins
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate, Spiral
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Linear)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acuminate
Foliar Base Acute
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 4.0 (Tree - Dense Canopy)

Non - Foliar and Storage

Trunk Type (Non Palm) Woody
Mature Bark Texture Fissured
Stem Type & Modification Woody
Root Type Underground (Tap Root, Fibrous Root)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) White, Yellow / Golden
Flower Symmetry Radial
Flower Size - Remarks 5mm
Inflorescence Type Panicle
Flowering Habit Polycarpic
Inflorescence Size Remarks Yellow portion of the petals turn brownish.

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Green, Pink, Yellow / Golden
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type Fleshy Fruit , Drupe

Image Repository



Master ID 1720
Species ID 3013
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 05 January 2023.