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Podocarpus neriifolius


Podocarpus neriifolius D. Don

Family Name: Podocarpaceae
Synonyms: Margbensonia neriifolia, Nageia discolor, Podocarpus polyantha, Podocarpus neglecta, Podocarpus discolor, Nageia neriifolia
Common Name: Mountain Teak, Brown Pine, Oleander Podocarp, Lowland Podocarp, Jati Bukit, Podo Bukit, Kayu China, Setada, Sentada, 百日青


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Gymnosperms (Non-Flowering Seed Plants) (Conifer)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m), Medium (16m-30m), Small (6m-15m), Shrubby (1m-5m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Rounded
Maximum Height 3 m to 45 m
Tree or Palm – Trunk Diameter 0 m to 1 m


Native Distribution India, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Indochina, Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia. Papua New Guinea
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Monsoon Forest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal, Temperate
CITES Protection True (Appendix III)

Description and Ethnobotany

Others - Plant Morphology Small to large evergreen coniferous tree. Non-flowering plant, whose naked seeds are not contained within protective confines of a fruit. 'Flowers' are actually unisexual cones, and the species is dioecious -- pollen-producing male cones and seed-bearing female cones are produced on different trees. Oval-shaped seeds sit on seed stalks, which becomes fleshy and reddish upon maturity.Genus name 'Podocarpus' is derived from the Greek words for foot and fruit, a reference to the swollen stalk or receptacle that holds the seed. Species epithet 'nerrifolius' means oleander-leaved.Regarded as valuable softwood timber tree. Inside of bark pleasantly aromatic.
Ethnobotanical Uses Cultural / Religious ( Heritage Tree :                                                                                         There is currently one individual of Podocarpus neriifolius listed as a Heritage Tree in Singapore. It can be found at the Singapore Botanic Gardens. To find out more about this tree, please visit the Heritage Tree Register.)
[Others]: Wood used for construction, and making furniture, musical instruments, carvings, and paper. Timber tradename is Lowland Podocarpus.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Fruits, Fragrant (Bark)
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Disease / Pest Resistant
Landscape Uses Container Planting, General, Roadside Tree / Palm, Coastal, Shade Providing Tree / Palm
Thematic Landscaping Naturalistic Garden
SGMP Treatment

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Abiotic (Wind)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna) (Insects (Ant, Beetle))

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Propagation Method Seed, Stem Cutting


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth, Glossy / Shiny, Raised / Sunken Veins, Thick
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Spiral
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Lanceolate)
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acuminate
Foliar Base Cuneate
Typical Foliar Area Notophyll ( 20.25cm2 - 45 cm2 )
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Non - Foliar and Storage

Trunk Type (Non Palm) Woody
Bark Colour(s) Greyish-brown to black
Mature Bark Texture Fissured, Peeling / Flaking / Papery, Scaly
Stem Type & Modification Woody
Root Type Underground (Tap Root, Fibrous Root)
Mature Bark Texture Remarks Bark peels off in longitudinal strips.

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Unisexual Flowers
Flower & Plant Sexuality 2 Dioecious
Flower Colour(s) Cream / Off-White, Green, Red
Ovary Position Superior / Hypogynous
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Red
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Indehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Nut / Nutlet

Image Repository



Master ID 1783
Species ID 3076
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 06 March 2023.