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Podocarpus rumphii


Podocarpus rumphii Blume

Family Name: Podocarpaceae
Synonyms: Podocarpus koordersii, Margbensonia rumphii, Podocarpus philippinensis, Nageia rumphii
Common Name: Jati Laut, Kayu China, Sandu, Malakauayan, Mermolas, 海罗汉树


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Gymnosperms (Non-Flowering Seed Plants) (Conifer)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Conical
Maximum Height 20 m to 30 m


Native Distribution Southern China, Taiwan, Philippines, Peninsular Malaysia, Java, Sulawesi, Papua New Guinea
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Monsoon Forest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
CITES Protection True

Description and Ethnobotany

Others - Plant Morphology Gymnosperm (non-flowering, seed-producing), coniferous tree, up to 45m height in the wild. Crown is conical for young trees, becoming more oval with age. Leaves linear-lanceolate, pendulous, giving tree a slightly weeping appearance.Dioecious species -- male and female cones found on separate trees. Male cones are pollen-bearing, cylindrical, creamy-white, produced in clusters of up to 8 cones. Female cones are ovule and seed-bearing, solitary, with swollen receptables. Seeds are naked (ie. not enclosed within fruits), green with whitish waxy bloom, resting on top of swollen fleshy receptacles which mature from blue to bright red. Fleshy receptacles edible and reported to be sweet.Slow-growing. Cultivated singly or in groups for neat appearance and minimal leaf litter. Genus name 'Podocarpus' is derived from the Greek words for foot and fruit, a reference to the swollen stalk or receptacle that holds the seed.
Ethnobotanical Uses Food (Herb and Spice : Fleshy receptacles are edible and said to be sweet.;Fruit & Vegetable)
[Others]: Wood considered to be premium softwood timber, used for making houses, canoes, household utensils and carving.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Fruits
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Fertile Loamy Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Waterlogged Soils (Drains Site), Saline Soils / Salt Spray
Landscape Uses Roadside Tree / Palm, Coastal, General
SGMP Treatment

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Abiotic (Wind)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna) (Insects (Ant, Beetle))

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Slow
Maintenance Requirements Moderate
Propagation Method Seed, Stem Cutting


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth, Glossy / Shiny, Leathery
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Lanceolate, Linear)
Foliar Venation Parallel
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acute, Acuminate
Typical Foliar Area Notophyll ( 20.25cm2 - 45 cm2 )
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Non - Foliar and Storage

Trunk Type (Non Palm) Woody
Bark Colour(s) Reddish-brown
Mature Bark Texture Fissured
Stem Type & Modification Woody
Root Type Underground (Tap Root, Fibrous Root)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Unisexual Flowers
Flower & Plant Sexuality 2 Dioecious
Flower Colour(s) Brown, Cream / Off-White, Yellow / Golden
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Green, Red
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Fleshy Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Berry

Image Repository



Master ID 1785
Species ID 3078
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 14 October 2021.