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Hopea coriacea Burck

Family Name: Dipterocarpaceae
Common Name: Giam Hantu, Damar Melapi, Garang Buaya, Arang Bayar
Full Sun Semi Shade Moderate Water Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m), Medium (16m-30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular


Native Distribution Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo.
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest, Riverine)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Sundaland

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tall tree with flaky or fissured-bark.
Foliage Its stalked, alternately-arranged leaves are thick and leathery, broadly ovate, and 11-16 cm by 6-10 cm. The leaf margins are slightly curved in.
Flowers Its flowers are five-petaled. Each petal is narrow-lanceolate, about 1.3 cm long. The flowers are borne on a stalked inflorescence.
Fruits Its fruits are winged nuts. The spatulate 'wings' are formed from two of the longer lobes of the persistent calyx, about 7 cm long and 1.5 cm wide. The ovoid nut is about 1.8 cm by 0.9 cm, enclosed by the remaining shorter calyx lobes.
Habitat It grows in lowland forests, along sandy river banks.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are pollinated by insects.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Latin Hopea, after Dr John Hope (1725–86), Scottish botanist of the Edinburgh Botanic Garden; Latin coriacea, thick, tough, and leathery, referring to the leaves of this species.

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It is suitable for growing in parks.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Fruits
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens, Riverine

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Abiotic (Gravity)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, Semi-Shade
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Maintenance Requirements Moderate
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery, Thick
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Ovate)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acuminate
Foliar Base Rounded / Obtuse

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Cream / Off-White, White
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial
Inflorescence Type Panicle

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Brown
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Indehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Nut / Nutlet

Image Repository



Master ID 31678
Species ID 6077
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 20 August 2021.