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Brassica juncea Head-leaf Mustard Group

Family Name: Brassicaceae (Cruciferae)
Common Name: Gai Choy, Indian Mustard, Chinese Mustard, 芥菜, 包心芥菜
Semi-Shade Moderate Water Fruit & Vegetable Annual Herbaceous


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Infraspecific Epithet
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Herbaceous Plant
Lifespan (in Singapore) Annual
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Rounded


Native Habitat Terrestrial

Description and Ethnobotany

Foliage Its leaves are large and the bases are thick and wrapped together.
Cultivation It grows best with a temperature between 15 - 25 °C. It is attacked by the diamond-back moth (Plutella xylostella) which can be treated with Bacillus thuringiensis.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Leaves)
Food (Fruit & Vegetable : The young tender leaves can be used in salads. Mature leaves are cooked in stir fries, or can be used in soups and stews.)

Landscaping Features

Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Landscape Uses Small Gardens
Thematic Landscaping Economic Garden

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Semi-Shade
Water Preference Moderate Water
Pest(s) Chewing Insects
Propagation Method Seed


Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green - Light Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth, Raised / Sunken Veins, Thick
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Rosulate / Rosette
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage
Foliar Margin Serrate / Toothed
Foliar Apex - Tip Rounded

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Yellow / Golden
Flower Texture(s) Smooth
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Terminal
Flower Symmetry Radial
Individual Flower Shape Cruciform / Cross-shaped
Inflorescence Type Raceme
Inflorescence Size - Length 60
Inflorescence Size - Unit cm

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Green
Mature Fruit Texture(s) Smooth
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Dehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Silique
Mature Seed Colour(s) Black, Brown
Seed Quantity Per Fruit Several (11-20)

Image Repository



Master ID 33593
Species ID 8007
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 26 August 2021.