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Plumeria cultivars


Plumeria cultivars

Family Name: Apocynaceae
Common Name: Frangipani, Graveyard Flower, Plumeria, 鸡蛋花属

Plumeria generally known as Frangipani is a genus from the Apocynaceae (Milkweed) family. It consist of small to medium sized trees that exude a white milky sap when bruised. Leaves comes in various shapes and sizes; some are lance-shaped, spoon or egg-like in appearance. Flowers are 5 petalled, large and waxy. It has a sweet fragrance with hints of jasmine, citrus and gardenia which intensifies during the evening. This genus produce horn-like seed pods that spilt upon maturity, releasing 20 - 60 flat winged seeds.


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet Type
Common Names
Species Summary

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Small (6m-15m))
Maximum Height 12 m


Native Distribution Mexico to Northern South America, Florida to Caribbean
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Non-native

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form The genus is made of trees with a small to medium-sized stature. They exudate a white milky sap when bruised or pruned. The species and cultivars of Plumeria varies in form; appearing upright and compact or open and sprawling.
Foliage Leaves are leathery to fleshy, comes in a range of shapes such as egg, lance or spoon-shaped. Leaf margin is smooth ending with a round to pointed leaf tip. The alternately arranged foliage are concentrated on branch tips, scars are left behind when the older leaves fall off.
Flowers Flowers are large, waxy and tubular. Colours include white, yellow, red, pink or bicoloured. Borne on a thyrsiform inflorescence, the 5 petalled flowers are fragrant, with hints of of jasmine, citrus and gardenia. While the flowers remain fragrant all day, the scent is strongest during the evenings.
Fruit It has seed pods that resembles a pair of horns. They are hard, cylindrical, leathery to woody follicles that grows to 20 cm long. Upon maturity, it splits lengthwise releasing 20 - 60 flat, irregularly winged seeds. It is observed that some cultivated varieties rarely fruit.
Cultivation Frangipanis are sun-loving species that thrive in moist well drained soil. Overwatering or soggy soil subject the tree to root rot, hence loose media are preferred when growing in containers. Apply high phosphorous fertiliser according to the product label to promote flowering. A layer of mulch around the base of the tree can reduce the susceptibility of rust infection, common to Plumeria genus.
Etymology The genus name, Plumeria was named in honour of Charles Plumier (1646-1704), French monk of the Franciscan order, botanist and traveller.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Fragrant, Ornamental Flowers
Landscape Uses Container Planting, Focal Plant, Parks & Gardens
Usage Hazard - Cons Irritant - Sap

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Rootzone Tolerance Fertile Loamy Soils, Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils
Propagation Method Air-Layering, Grafting, Stem Cutting


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate, Sessile
Foliar Shape(s)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acuminate, Rounded
Foliar Base Attenuate, Cuneate, Oblique / Asymmetrical

Non - Foliar and Storage

Stem Type & Modification Woody
Root Type Underground (Fibrous Root)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Bisexual Flowers , Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Cream / Off-White, Orange, Patterned, Pink, Red, White, Yellow / Golden
Flower Texture(s) Waxy
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Terminal
Flower Symmetry Radial
Individual Flower Shape Salverform
Inflorescence Type Thryse
Flowering Period Free-Flowering
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Green
Mature Fruit Texture(s) Leathery
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type
Mature Seed Colour(s) Brown, Cream / Off-White
Mature Seed Texture(s) Papery
Seed Quantity Per Fruit Numerous (>20)


References Stoffers, A.L. (1982). Apocynaceae. Flora of the Netherlands Antilles, 2(3), pp. 302-314.

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (continuously updated). Plants of the World Online | Kew Science. Accessed 24 Feburary 2022.

Image Repository



Master ID 34207
Species ID 8620
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 12 May 2022.