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Hopea beccariana Burck

Family Name: Dipterocarpaceae
Synonyms: Balanocarpus ovalifolius Ridl., Hancea beccariana (Burck) Pierre, Hancea beccarii (Burck) Pierre, Hopea intermedia King, Hopea nicholsonii F.Heim
Common Name: Merawan Batu, Jangkang, Selangan Penak, Garang Buaya Daun Kechil

Hopea beccariana, also known as Merawan Batu, is large tree, reaching up to 45 m tall. It has small cream flowers which produced winged fruits after pollination. Aside from its valuable timber, it also produces a clear resin which can be used to make varnish for caulking boats and illumination purposes.

Full Sun Moderate Water Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
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Common Names
Species Summary

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants)
Plant Growth Form Tree
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Broad / Mushroom / Hemispherical
Maximum Height 45 m


Native Distribution Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra and Borneo
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Exotic

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree, up to 45 m tall, with a diffuse hemispherical crown and short buttresses. The bark is dark brown and deeply fissured.
Foliage Leaves are ovate (5 – 8 cm long and 2.2 – 4.5 cm wide) and thinly leathery. Each leaf has about 8 pairs of lateral veins. The midrib is slightly raised on both surfaces. The leaf tip is slender and tapering, up to 1.5 cm while the leaf base is wedge-shaped to subequal. The leaf stalk is 1.2 – 1.7 cm long. The stipules can reach up to 0.25 cm long and fall off early.
Flowers Flowers occur in a cluster as a panicle inflorescence at the axillary (rarely terminal) position. Inflorescence is single-branched, reaching up to 7 cm long, and comprises of up to 5 flowers. All the flowers on the branch face the same direction (secund). Flower is small and creamy white. Each flower has 15 stamens with broadly oblong anthers. The ovary and the stylopodium are hour-glass-shaped and tapering into a short style.
Fruits The fruit is woody and winged. Each fruit has 2 longer lobes (3.5 cm long and 1 cm wide) and 3 shorter lobes (0.7 cm long). The nut is broadly ovoid (9 cm long and 0.5 cm wide) with a short tapering style remnant (0.1 cm long).
Habitat It is found in rainforest and coastal hills, up to 1200 m altitude.
Associated Fauna Flowers are pollinated by insects, possibly thrips.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology The genus Hopea commemorates John Hope (1725-1768), the first Regius Keeper of the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. The specific epithet beccariana commemorates Odoardo Beccari (1843 – 1920), an Italian explorer and botanist who contributed significantly to the flora of Malesian region.
Ethnobotanical Uses Medicinal ( In Malaysia, local villagers traditionally used the resin as a folk remedy to treat sores and wounds. )
Timber & Products ( The timber is used as Merawan for heavy construction such as house support and boat hulls. The tree produces a clear resin or dammar, which is known as damar mata kucing in Malaysia. The resin can be used to make varnish for caulking boats and illumination purposes. The bark contains tannin and is used to tan leather and to make tannin-formaldehyde adhesive. )

Landscaping Features

Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Well-Drained Soils
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate to Slow


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) Pink
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Caudate
Foliar Base Cuneate

Non - Foliar and Storage

Trunk Type (Non Palm) Woody
Mature Bark Texture Fissured
Root Type Underground

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Cream / Off-White
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary, Terminal
Flower Symmetry Radial
Inflorescence Type Panicle
Flowering Period Every Few Years

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Brown
Mature Fruit Texture(s) Leathery
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Indehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Samara
Seed Quantity Per Fruit Few (1-5)



Ashton, P.S. (1982). Dipterocarpaceae. In: van Steenis, C.G.G.J. (ed.) Flora Malesiana, ser.1,vol. 9, part 2, pp. 237–552, 575–600. The Hague/Boston/London: Martinus Nijhoff/Dr. W. Junk Publishers.

Ashton, P.S. (2004). Dipterocarpaceae. In: Soepadmo, E., Saw L.G. & Chung, R.C.K. (eds) Tree Flora of Sabah Sarawak, vol. 5, pp. 63–388. Malaysia: Forest Research Institute Malaysia (FRIM)/Sabah Forestry Department/Sarawak Forestry Department.

Soerianegara, I., & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (Editors). 1993. Plant Resources of South-East Asia Volume 5 (1). Timber Trees: Major Commercial Timbers. Netherlands: Pudoc Scientific Publishers. 610 pages. 

Image Repository



Master ID 34231
Species ID 8644
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 11 May 2022.