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Clerodendrum paniculatum


Clerodendrum paniculatum L.

Family Name: Lamiaceae (Labiatae)
Synonyms: Clerodendrum citrinumCleianthus coccineusClerodendrum diversifoliumClerodendrum paniculatum var. diversifoliumClerodendrum pyramidaleVolkameria angulataVolkameria diversifolia
Common Name: Pagoda Flower, Pangil-pangil, 圆锥大青

Pagoda Flower (Clerodendrum paniculatum) has tall pyramid-like inflorescence and large glossy leaves, making it a striking plant. The flowers are mainly pollinated by butterflies for nectar.


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names
Species Summary

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Shrub
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Shrubby
Maximum Height 1 m to 1.5 m


Native Distribution Assam to Vietnam to Malesia
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Evergreen woody shrub.
Foliage Glossy, deep-veined leaves vary in shape from subcordate to orbicular to ovate (up to 30 cm wide) often having 3 - 5 lobes. They have an opposite arrangement. The leaves emit an unpleasant fragrance. Leaf blade has cordate base, apex acute, margin entire to minutely denticulate.
Stems Stem and branches hollow, slightly pubescent, 4-angled, slightly hairy. Branchlets are subglabrous to pubescent.
Flowers Pink, orange-red or red, bisexual, unscented tubular flowers (1.5 cm wide) occur in terminal panicles shaped like Chinese pagodas (up to 45 cm in height). Stamens and style extend well beyond the petals, since they are 4 times longer. In the tropics, this species blooms throughout most of the year. Flowers last for several weeks on the plant. 
Fruit Spherical fruits about 1 cm in diameter are classified as drupes. Fruits are rarely seen in cultivated plants.
Habitat Occurs in tropical open forests, grassy marshes, forest edges and stream banks.
Cultivation Plant can be propagated vegetatively via cuttings and suckers. This species is easy to maintain. Protect the plant from very intense sunlight and strong winds. Plant them 2.5 - 3 m apart in slightly acidic soil that is rich in humus and has good drainage. Cultivated plants rarely produce fruit. This plant is fast-growing and aggressive, so restrain its growth by removing the suckers and hard pruning after blooming.
Etymology Genus epithet Clerodendrum is from the Greek word "kleros" which means chance and "dendron" meaning a tree. The species epithetpaniculatum refers to the arrangement of flowers in terminal panicles.
Ethnobotanical Uses Medicinal:

Traditional Medicinal Uses

In Indonesia, the plant is used in treating sore eyes. In some other countries such as India, China and Japan, the plant is used traditionally for treating rheumatism, ulcer, neuralgia, typhoid, anemia, liver complaints, purification of blood, inflammation, and wounds <1>.

It is important to note that some therapeutic effects from traditional medicinal uses of plants are not currently supported or verified by scientific research.

Cultural / Religious: Various magical attributes have been recorded. In Malaysia, some people believe that the plant has magical powers to attract spirits, and thus the Malay vernacular name Pangil-pangil.

Landscaping Features

Landscaping Often planted in tropical gardens, because of their large, showy inflorescences. It is attractive when planted as part of a mixed border. Planting several individuals together creates a stunning display of color. This species produces nectar which attracts butterflies and sunbirds.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers
Landscape Uses Flowerbed / Border, Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens
Thematic Landscaping Bird & Wildlife Garden, Butterfly Garden

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Butterfly Food Plant (Flower Nectar), Bird Attracting (Flowers)
Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna) (Insects (Butterfly, Moth), Vertebrates (Bird))
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Fast
Rootzone Tolerance Dry Soils / Drought, Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils
Potential Problems Plants grow fast. Plants can be controlled by removing the suckers to avoid spreading.
Diseases No known diseases affecting the plant.
Pest(s) Sucking Insects
Propagation Method Stem Cutting, Root Cutting, Seed, Sucker, Air-Layering
Propagation Method Remarks Replant the suckers that grow near the base of a mature plant. Can also propagate by seed, air-layering and root or stem cuttings.
Planting Distance 2.5 m to 3 m


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 4.5 (Shrub & Groundcover - Dicot)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower Colour(s) Red


References <1> Prashith Kekuda T.R & Sudharshan S.J (2018). Ethnobotanical uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of Clerodendrum paniculatum L. (Lamiaceae), A comprehensive review, Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics, 8(5): 28- 34.

Image Repository



Master ID 530
Species ID 1826
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 29 September 2023.