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Artocarpus altilis


Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg

Family Name: Moraceae
Synonyms: Artocarpus communis J.R.Forst. & G.Forst., Artocarpus incisus (Thunb.) L.f., 
Common Name: Breadfruit, Sukun, Suku, Kulur, Kelor


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants)
Plant Growth Form Tree
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Maximum Height 40 m
Tree or Palm – Trunk Diameter 0 to 1


Native Distribution Malaysia to Tahiti
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Non-native

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a monoecious tree that can grow up to 40 m.
Others - Plant Morphology Artocarpus altilis is an evergreen tree in humid tropics but semi-deciduous in monsoon climate. Its, 5 – 8 m tall, trunk can reach a diameter of 0.6 – 1.8 m. Alternate, ovate to elliptical, leaves. Inflorences axillary, male flower drooping, shaped like a club and the female flower stiffly upright, globose or cylindrical.Propagated from seed, the seed must be planted when fairly fresh as they will lose viability within a few weeks and it cannot be stored in refrigerator. Before planting breadfruit trees in a well-enriched hole, 40 cm deep and 90 cm wide, the hole must be sterilise by burning trash in them and mixed the soil with insecticide to protect roots and shoots from grubs, thick wormlike larva. However, well-drained clay loams under partial shade are the optimum condition for it to grow.Fruits, immature or ripe, and seeds are boiled, baked, roasted or fried before consuming.Before making it into a biscuit, the ripe fruits are cooked before drying it in sun or oven.Fruits can be made into a nutritious cheese-like paste, by letting it ferments, and made into cakes and baked.Blended with the fibre of paper mulberry, the male flower spikes can be used to produce loincloths.When diluted with rain water, the latex, from the trunk, can be used to treat diarrhoea. As the wood is light yet firm and nicely grained, it is used to make canoes, surfboards, toys, boxes and crates.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts : Edible Fruits, Edible Leaves
Food (Fruit or Vegetable) (Herb or Spice)

Landscaping Features

Thematic Landscaping Economic Garden

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Abiotic (Wind)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Propagation Method Seed, Root Cutting, Sucker, Air-Layering


Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Glossy / Shiny, Leathery, Rough, Thick
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Ovate, Lanceolate)
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 2.5 (Tree - Open Canopy)

Non - Foliar and Storage

Root Type Aboveground (Buttress Root)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Unisexual Flowers , Monoecious
Flower Colour(s) Green, Yellow / Golden
Inflorescence Size Remarks Male flowers are yellow while female are green.

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Green, Yellow / Golden

Image Repository



Master ID 1438
Species ID 2731
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 10 September 2023.