Singapore Government Logo

A Singapore Government Agency Website


Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. ex Blume

Family Name: Moraceae
Synonyms: Artocarpus blumei Trécul, Artocarpus pubescens Blume, Saccus blumei (Trécul) Kuntze, Saccus elasticus (Reinw. ex Blume) Kuntze, Saccus kunstleri (King) Kuntze, 
Common Name: Terap, Getah Terup
Full Sun Moderate Water Native to Singapore Fruit or Vegetable Suitable for Roadsides Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m))
Maximum Height 45 m to 65 m


Native Distribution Myanmar, Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Borneo, Java, Philippines and Lesser Sunda Islands
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Least Concern (LC))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form Artocarpus elasticus is a tree that can grow up to 45 m tall, 90 cm trunk diameter, with buttresses up to 3 m tall. Bark is greyish brown, range from smooth to slightly scaly. Tree produces white sap when wounded.  
Foliage Leaves are spirally arranged, and simple with rough hairs on both upper and lower surfaces. The leaves are dimorphic, where young plant has deeply lobed leaves and adult tree has elliptical to oblong entire leaves, about 15 – 60 cm long and 10 – 35 cm wide. Lateral venation is prominent on the underside of the leaves and petiole is 4 – 10 cm long. Stipule (6 – 20 cm long) is densely covered with yellowish or reddish brown hairs and wraps almost entirely around the stem (amplexicaul), leaving circular stipule scar when dropped. 
Flowers Inflorescences (about 4 – 7.5 cm long) occurs solitary and axillary. Male and female flowers occurs on different individuals. Male flowers have 0.9 mm long stamens and oblong anthers while female flowers have simple or bifid styles which protrude out. 
Fruits Fruit is cylindrical (up to 12 cm long and 6 cm wide), with soft recurved spines. Fruit is cream yellow and ripen brownish with a rancid smell. Seeds are covered in white succulent flesh. 
Cultivation Grows in full sun. Able to grow in a range of soil from sandy to clay loam. Propagation by seeds.
Etymology The genus epithet Artocarpus comes from the Greek words 'artos', meaning bread and 'karpos', meaning fruit. The species epithet elasticus, in latin, meaning elastic, with reference to its latex. 
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits, Edible Seeds)
Food (Fruit & Vegetable : The white fleshy fruiting perianth is edible. Seeds can also be eaten after roasting. )
Timber & Products ( The terap timber is also used mainly for light construction. The bark is used by the aborigines in Sarawak to make ropes and cloths. The latex is used for making bird glue for trapping. )
Cultural / Religious ( Heritage Tree : There are 4 individuals of Artocarpus elasticus listed as Heritage Trees in Singapore. All of which can be found in Fort Canning Park. To find out more about this tree, please visit the Heritage Tree Register.)

Landscaping Features

Landscape Uses General, Roadside Tree / Palm

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate


Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Margin Entire - Wavy / Undulate, Lyrate
Typical Foliar Area Mesophyll ( 45cm2 - 182.25 cm2 )
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Image Repository



Master ID 1439
Species ID 2732
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 04 August 2022.