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Garcinia dulcis


Garcinia dulcis (Roxb.) Kurz

Family Name: Clusiaceae (Guttiferae)
Synonyms: Xanthochymus dulcis Roxb., Garcinia elliptica ChoisyXanthochymus javanensis Blume, Stalagmitis dulcis Cambess., Stalagmitis javanensis Spach
Common Name: Yellow Mangosteen, Mundu, Gourka, Maphut, Baniti, 瓜哇凤果


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Small (6m-15m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Maximum Height 13 m


Native Distribution Indian Ocean (Andaman & Nicobar), Philippines, Peninsular Malaysia, Indonesia (Java, Kalimantan)
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical, Sub-Tropical / Monsoonal
Local Conservation Status Non-native (Horticultural / Cultivated Only)

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree, up to 13 m tall, with parts exuding white latex when damaged.
Trunk Its trunk is short, with brown bark. Its twigs are usually finely hairy.
Foliage Its oppositely-arranged, stalked leaves have leaf blades that are ovate to oblong-elliptic, 10-30 cm long and 3.5-14 cm wide, dark green and shiny above, and usually hairy on the underside.
Flowers It produces male and female flowers on separate plants, and sometimes bisexual flowers as well. Its yellowish white flowers are borne in small clusters of 5 at the axils, about 6-12 mm wide, and smells sour.
Fruit Its fleshy fruits are round berries that are 5-8 cm wide, with a pointed tip that ends with a persistent stigma, and ripens light yellow in colour.
Associated Fauna Its fruits are probably eaten by small mammals.
Cultivation It can be propagated from seed.
Etymology Latin Garcinia, after Dr Laurent Garcin (1683-1751), a French naturalist with the East India Company; Latin dulcis, sweet tasting.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts : Edible Fruits
Food (Fruit & Vegetable): Fruits can be eaten raw, pulp is juicy but sour, served in sherbets, or made into jams and preserves.
Medicinal: Pounded seeds applied onto swellings. Fruit extracts used as expectorant for coughs, or to treat scurvy. Crushed roots used to relieve fever and counteract poisoning. Crushed bark and gum resin used to treat wounds, sores and ulcers, as well as applied onto decayed teeth to make them fall out. Anti-bacterial and anti-oxidant compounds extracted from flowers.
Others: Bark yields a black dye used for colouring mats and cotton. Unripe fruits provide an inferior-quality gamboge (mustard yellow) pigment.

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Fruits
Landscape Uses General
Thematic Landscaping Economic Garden, Naturalistic Garden

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Rootzone Tolerance Fertile Loamy Soils, Well-Drained Soils
Maintenance Requirements Moderate
Propagation Method Seed, Air-Layering


Foliage Retention Drought / Semi-Deciduous
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Smooth, Glossy / Shiny, Leathery, Thick
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Opposite
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Oblong)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acute
Foliar Base Rounded / Obtuse
Typical Foliar Area Mesophyll ( 45cm2 - 182.25 cm2 )
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 4.0 (Tree - Dense Canopy)
Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) Remarks Pale Green

Non - Foliar and Storage

Trunk Type (Non Palm) Woody
Mature Bark Texture Scaly
Stem Type & Modification Woody
Root Type Underground (Fibrous Root, Tap Root)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Unisexual Flowers , Dioecious
Ovary Position Superior / Hypogynous
Flowering Period Hot & Dry Period
Flowering Habit Polycarpic

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Orange, Yellow / Golden
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type Fleshy Fruit , Berry

Image Repository



Master ID 1632
Species ID 2925
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 09 December 2022.