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Garcinia mangostana

Family Name: Clusiaceae (Guttiferae)
Common Name: Mangosteen, Manggis, Mesetor, Sementah, Semetah, 山竹
Full Sun: 6-8h Little Water Fruit & Vegetable Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Medium (16m-30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial


Native Distribution Indochina, Malesia
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical

Description and Ethnobotany

Foliage Large leaves are elongated with smooth margins.
Fruits The dark purple, round fruit is crowned by thick, persistent calyces (the outermost layer of the flower). The thick, fibrous rind protects white, fleshy segments that are arranged like a peeled mandarin orange. The flesh is juicy and sweet with a slightly acidic taste. The number of fleshy segments is proportional to the number of brown to grey, triangular lobes at the bottom of the fruit.
Cultivation It is difficult to cultivate this species for fruit, because seedling mortality rate is high and trees only begin to produce fruits after 8-15 years.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits)
Food (Fruit & Vegetable : The fruit is best eaten fresh, because processing tends to ruin the flavour. It is sometimes eaten with sherbert or ice cream. The fruit tends to be in season at the same time as Durian. Some Chinese like to eat the fruits together, because they believe mangosteen has a cooling effect, while durian has a heating effect.)
Medicinal ( In many Asian countries, the bark and fruit skin are used to treat diarrhea and dysentery. The rind contains a high concentration of tannin and is also used to treat dysentery. The Malays use a decoction of the roots to treat irregular menstruation. In Indonesia, the bark and leaves are considered astringent and also used to control fever. )
[Others]: The sap of the mangosteen has been used as a black coloring agent to dye silk. It stains fabric and may also linger on your hands for some time as well.

Landscaping Features

Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens
Thematic Landscaping Economic Garden

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, [Remarks] (The seedlings need 505-795 shade for the first 3-years before can be grown in full sun.)
Water Preference Little Water
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Glossy / Shiny, Leathery, Thick
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Opposite
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Elliptical, Oblong)
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 40 Tree Dense Canopy

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Purple
Fruit Type 1 Fleshy Fruit


References Phillipps K. & M. Dahlen. 1985. A Guide to Market Fruits of Southeast Asia. Hong Kong: South China Morning Post. 132 pp.

Piper, J.M.. 1989. Fruits of South-East Asia Facts and Folklore. Singapore: Oxford University Press. 94 pp.

Image Repository



Master ID 1634
Species ID 2927
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 26 August 2021.