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Hopea sangal Korth.

Family Name: Dipterocarpaceae
Common Name: Cengal Pasir, Cengal Mata Kuching, Mersiput, Dammar Siput, Gagil, Merawan Hitam
Full Sun Semi Shade Moderate Water Native to Singapore Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m))
Plant Shape Irregular
Maximum Height 40 m


Native Distribution Peninsular Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Bangka and Belitung islands, West Java, and Borneo
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Riverine)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree that grows up to 40 m tall with stout buttress. Its dark brown bark is vertically cracked and scaly, very prominent against the cream-white resin exudations from the trunk.
Foliage Its alternate, stalked leaves have thin leaf blades that are egg-shaped and about 5.5–10 by 3.5–5 cm. Sometimes, hairy domatia (chambers produced by plants for arthropods) are present along leaf veins on the lower surface of leaf blades. Its slender tertiary veins are parallel to each other but indistinct. Its 3 mm-long stipules with grey-brown hairs are often falling off early during plant growth.
Flowers Its 7 cm-long flowering shoots are singly or doubly branched, bearing up to 8 pale yellow flowers with white-tipped hairs on the same side of each branchlet.
Fruits Its winged-nut is egg-shaped, sparsely covered with hair, and 4 mm wide.
Habitat It grows on clay-rich soils on river banks or hillsides up to 500 m in altitude.
Associated Fauna Its flowers are insect-pollinated.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Latin Hopea, commemorating John Hope, the first Regius Keeper of Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh; Dayak sangal, the vernacular name of this plant in Kalimantan

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It is suitable for parks.
Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Fruits, Ornamental Form
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Abiotic

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, Semi-Shade
Water Preference Moderate Water
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Thin
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Ovate)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Leaf Area Index (LAI) for Green Plot Ratio 3.0 (Tree - Intermediate Canopy)

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Cream / Off-White, Yellow / Golden
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Brown
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Indehiscent Dry Fruit
Fruit Type 2 Nut / Nutlet

Image Repository



Master ID 1668
Species ID 2961
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 20 April 2020.