Singapore Government Logo

A Singapore Government Agency Website


Artocarpus rigidus Blume

Family Name: Moraceae
Synonyms: Artocarpus cuspidatus Griff., Artocarpus dimorphophylla Miq., Artocarpus echinata Roxb., Artocarpus kertau Zoll. ex Miq., Artocarpus varians Miq.
Common Name: Mendeleka, Monkey Jack, Perian, Tampaneh, Tampang, Tampunet, Tapuret, Tempunai

Artocarpus rigidus is a tall native tree which is endangered in Singapore. It produces round spiny fruits which turn from green-yellow to orange when ripe. The orange fruit pulp is edible and said to taste sweet.

Full Sun: 6-8h Semi-Shade Moderate Water Native to Singapore Fruit & Vegetable Tree


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names
Species Summary

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular
Maximum Height 35 m
Maximum Plant Spread / Crown Width 0.9 m


Native Distribution Sumatra, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Borneo
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest, Coastal Forest, Freshwater Swamp Forest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Endangered (EN))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree up to 35 m tall and 90 cm wide. It has a dense, heavy, dark green, spreading crown, and short buttresses. Its twigs, leaf stalks, and leaf blade veins on the underside are covered with stiff hairs.
Crown The crown is dense, heavy and spreading.
Foliage Its spirally arranged, stalked leaves have leathery blades that are usually oval to drop-shaped, dark shiny green, and 3–30 by 1.5–15 cm, with blunt or slight tips, and narrowed bases. Its leaf parts also exude white latex when damaged.
Flowers The species is monoecious, bearing both male and female flowers in the leaf axils on the same plant. The male flower clusters (heads) are yellow, flattened, oval, and up to 2.5 cm wide.
Fruits Its fruiting cluster (infructescence) is round, up to 10 cm wide, and ripens from greenish-yellow to dull-orange. The cluster is covered with stiff, conical spines of the non-reproductive, outer floral parts (perianths). The cluster also bears ellipsoid fruits that are up to 1.5 cm long each. Its seeds are embedded in orange, waxy pulp.
Habitat It grows in lowland evergreen forests up to 1,000 m altitude. It occurs locally in Nee Soon Swamp Forest, and along Hendon Road.
Associated Fauna Its fruits are eaten by tree-living mammals such as civet cats, monkeys, and squirrels. It is also the locally preferred food plant for caterpillars of the moth, the jackfruit borer (Diaphania caesalis or Glyphodes caesalis).
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Greek artos, bread; Greek karpos, fruit, hence breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis; Latin rigidus, rigid, referring to the rigid spines on the species’ fruit cluster
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits)
Food (Fruit & Vegetable : The fruit pulp is said to be edible and sweet-tasting. )
Medicinal ( The latex can be applied on wounds.)
Timber & Products ( The timber is used for making beams, boats, and furniture.)
Cultural / Religious ( Heritage Trees : There is currently one individual of Artocarpus rigidus listed as a Heritage Tree in Singapore. It can be found at Changi. To find out more about these trees, please visit the Heritage Tree Register.)
[Others]: The latex is also used for dyeing calico.

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It can be cultivated in parks and large gardens.
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils
Landscape Uses General, Parks & Gardens

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Fauna Pollination Dispersal Associated Fauna Caterpillar Moth Food Plant
Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna) (Vertebrates (Other Mammal))

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, Semi-Shade
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Maintenance Requirements Moderate
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate, Spiral
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Obovate, Oval)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acute, Obtuse
Foliar Base Attenuate

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Unisexual Flowers
Flower & Plant Sexuality 2 Monoecious
Flower Colour(s) Yellow / Golden
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Yellow / Golden, Orange
Mature Fruit Texture(s) Thorny / Spiny

Image Repository



Master ID 29267
Species ID 3576
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 14 October 2021.