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Artocarpus kemando


Artocarpus kemando Miq.

Family Name: Moraceae
Synonyms: Artocarpus brunneifolia Moore, Artocarpus maingayi King, Artocarpus sumatranus Jarrett
Common Name: Squirrel's Jack, Cempedak Air

Artocarpus kemando, also known as Squirrel's Jack, is a critically endangered tree in Singapore. It can reach up to 35 m tall. Despite its stature, the compound fruit is one of the smallest in its genus and they are eaten and dispersed by small mammals and birds.


Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Name Status (botanical)
Common Names
Species Summary

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants)
Plant Growth Form Tree (Big (>30m))
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic
Plant Shape Irregular
Maximum Height 35 m


Native Distribution Thailand, Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, and Borneo
Native Habitat Terrestrial (Primary Rainforest, Secondary Rainforest, Freshwater Swamp Forest)
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Native to Singapore (Critically Endangered (CR))

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a tree up to 35 m tall, with short buttresses.
Foliage Its spirally arranged, stalked leaves have leathery leaf blades that are oval to almost drop-shaped, 3–18 by 1.5–10 cm, distinctly tipped, and sparsely covered with fine, white hairs. Its leaf parts also exude white latex when damaged.
Flowers The species is monoecious, bearing both male and female flowers on the same plant. Its flowering cluster (head) is found singly, or in pairs, at leaf axils, or on twigs behind the leaves. The male flower heads are cylindrical, and 2–4 cm long.
Fruit Its fruit cluster (infructescence) is ellipsoid to rather rounded, up to 4.5 by 3.5 cm, and found at leaf axils, or twigs behind the leaves. The cluster bears ellipsoid fruits that are up to 8 mm long each.
Habitat It grows in lowland evergreen forests up to 900 m altitude, often in swampy places. It occurs locally in the Central Catchment Nature Reseve including Nee Soon Swamp Forest.
Associated Fauna Its fruits are eaten by tree-living mammals such as civet cats, monkeys, and squirrels.
Cultivation It can be propagated by seed.
Etymology Greek artos, bread; Greek karpos, fruit, hence breadfruit, Artocarpus altilis; kemando, the Sumatran vernacular name of this species
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts : Edible Fruits
Food (Fruit or Vegetable): The fruits are edible.
Timber & Products: Household utensils, and door or window frames may be made using the timber, also known as terap.
Others: The latex is substituted for coconut oil in cooking. Bird-lime can also be made using the latex. 

Landscaping Features

Landscaping It is suitable for planting in parks and gardens.
Landscape Uses General, Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)
Seed or Spore Dispersal Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun, Semi-Shade
Water Preference Lots of Water, Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Moderate
Rootzone Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Propagation Method Seed


Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Mature Foliage Texture(s) Leathery
Foliar Modification Stipule
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate, Spiral
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage (Obovate, Oval)
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality Unisexual Flowers , Monoecious
Flower Grouping Cluster / Inflorescence
Flower Location Axillary

Fruit, Seed and Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) Green - Light Green
Mature Fruit Texture(s) Rough
Fruit Classification Multiple Fruit
Fruit Type

Image Repository



Master ID 31788
Species ID 6188
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 06 May 2024.