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Passiflora quadrangularis L.

Family Name: Passifloraceae
Common Name: Giant Granadilla, Parcha, Timun Belanda, Giant Tumbo
Full Sun: 6-8h Moderate Water Fruit & Vegetable Fragrant Ornamental Flowers Climber, Vine and Liana

Name

Family Name
Genus Epithet
Species Epithet
Name Authority
Common Names

Classifications and Characteristics

Plant Division Angiosperms (Flowering Seed Plants) (Dicotyledon)
Plant Growth Form Climber, Vine & Liana
Lifespan (in Singapore) Perennial
Mode of Nutrition Autotrophic

Biogeography

Native Distribution Tropical America
Native Habitat Terrestrial
Preferred Climate Zone Tropical
Local Conservation Status Exotic (Horticultural / Cultivated Only)

Description and Ethnobotany

Growth Form It is a fast-growing, semi-woody vine, climbs to a usual height of 10 - 15 m (in some areas, up to 45 m).
Foliage Tendrils are located at the axils, with leaf-like, ovate shaped stipules (measuring up to 3.5 cm long). Leaves are broadly ovate to oblong-ovate, measuring 10 - 20 cm long and 8 - 15 cm wide, and alternately arranged along the stem. Base is rounded to cordate, while apex is abruptly acute. Leaf blade is thin, with visible sunken veins on the upper surface, and prominent on the undersides. 
Stems Stems are 4-angled, prominently winged on the angles.
Flowers Flowers are solitary and fragrant. Each flower is about 12 cm in diameter, has a bell-shaped calyx, 5 sepals greenish on the outside while whitish, pinkish or purplish on the inside; 5 white and pink petals, measuring about 4.5 cm long; corona filaments are purple, white and blue. 
Fruits Fruits are melon-like shaped, oblong, aromatic, measuring about 10 - 30 cm long and 15 cm wide. Fruit surface may be longitudinally 3-lobed or ribbed, skin is greenish white to pale yellow and thin. Flesh is white or pink and about 4 cm thick; the central cavity contains juice and yellowish sweet and acidic pulp, which enclose brown seeds. 
Habitat Found in jungle areas.
Cultivation The vine requires moist and fertile but well-drained soil. Plants grown from seeds may take at least 2 - 3 weeks to germinate. Plant stem cuttings of about 30 cm long in well-drained soil, and defoliate partially. Plants can then be transplanted in about 30 days when there is sufficient vegetative growth or root development. Plant the vines about 3 m apart. Pruning may be required if plant is too dense. Regularly apply fertilizers high in organic matter. Hand pollination may be required if no insect pollinators around, best done in the late morning of not more than 4 hours after flower opens. Fruits are ready for harvest when the skin turns glossy and the apex is turning yellowish. 
Etymology The genus Passiflora means passion-flower The specific epithet quadrangularis means four angles, with reference to the stem shape.
Ethnobotanical Uses Edible Plant Parts (Edible Fruits, Edible Seeds)
Food (Fruit & Vegetable : The green unripe fruits are boiled and eaten as vegetables. The edible seeds are covered in whitish, sweet but tart, jelly-like pulp.)
[Others]: The fruit flesh (with inner skin removed) can be cut up and added to fruit salads. Flesh has bland taste and hence need added flavouring. 

Landscaping Features

Desirable Plant Features Ornamental Flowers, Fragrant (Flowers)
Plant & Rootzone Preference - Tolerance Moist Soils, Well-Drained Soils, Fertile Loamy Soils
Landscape Uses Parks & Gardens, Small Gardens, Trellis / Arbour / Pergola

Fauna, Pollination and Dispersal

Pollination Method(s) Biotic (Fauna)

Plant Care and Propagation

Light Preference Full Sun
Water Preference Moderate Water
Plant Growth Rate Fast
Pruning Pruning may be necessary when plant grows too dense.
Propagation Method Seed, Stem Cutting

Foliar

Foliage Retention Evergreen
Mature Foliage Colour(s) Green
Prominent Young Flush Colour(s) Green
Foliar Modification Foliar Tendril
Foliar Type Simple / Unifoliate
Foliar Arrangement Along Stem Alternate
Foliar Attachment to Stem Petiolate
Foliar Shape(s) Non-Palm Foliage
Foliar Venation Pinnate / Net
Foliar Margin Entire
Foliar Apex - Tip Acute
Foliar Base Rounded / Obtuse, Cordate

Non - Foliar and Storage

Stem Type & Modification Herbaceous, Climbing Tendril
Root Type Underground

Floral (Angiosperm)

Flower & Plant Sexuality 1 Bisexual Flowers
Flower Colour(s) Blue, Pink, Purple, White
Flower Texture(s) Smooth
Flower Grouping Solitary
Flower Location Axillary
Flower Symmetry Radial
Flowering Period Free-Flowering
Flowering Opening Time Daytime

Fruit, Seed & Spore

Mature Fruit Colour(s) - Angiosperms and Gymnosperms Green - Light Green, White, Yellow / Golden
Mature Fruit Texture(s) Smooth, Bumpy / Tuberculate
Fruit Classification Simple Fruit
Fruit Type 1 Fleshy Fruit
Mature Seed Colour(s) Brown
Mature Seed Texture(s) Glossy / Shiny
Seed Description Seeds are flattened, oval-shaped, measuring about 1.3 cm long. 
Seed Quantity Per Fruit Numerous (>20)

Image Repository

Images

Others

Master ID 32664
Species ID 7076
Flora Disclaimer The information in this website has been compiled from reliable sources, such as reference works on medicinal plants. It is not a substitute for medical advice or treatment and NParks does not purport to provide any medical advice. Readers should always consult his/her physician before using or consuming a plant for medicinal purposes.
Species record last updated on: 20 April 2020.
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